A developmental reading program is designed to help students achieve academic success by developing or enhancing their reading skills. It emphasizes reading instruction that is designed to develop systematically the skills and abilities considered essential at each level of reading advancement. Developmental reading refers to those activities “in which the main purpose of the teacher is to bring about an improvement in reading skills- activities in which learning to read is the main goal.” Developmental Reading operates on the grading level system.

This type of instruction is given to the majority of children in the regular classroom and systematic and continuous instruction in all skills at all levels by teachers is done. Reading is not a subject but a process that cuts across the entire curriculum. A developmental programme includes diagnosis, correction and remediation because of the varying abilities and rate of learning. Developmental Reading use learning to read techniques such as: phonemic awareness, phonics, and blending skills to help young children get started on the right foot. An underlying premise of this system is that students finishing a given grade should have mastered the language or reading skills and concepts that will prepare them for the next grade. This programme has many benefits, such as to help children become: strong independent readers with good comprehension

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The developmental reading programme improves comprehension, builds fluency, develops long- word decoding skills and promotes independent reading. The major goal of the developmental reading programme is reading achievement that approaches the limits of each person’s capacity. The programme focuses on the individual not upon the grade level performance, as it may be beneath or above some students. The focus is on the developmental of reading skills in sequence in keeping with expanding reading tasks. Developmental instruction involves instruction at all levels and in all content areas for those who are developing language abilities in keeping with their general capacity levels.

Developmental reading

Organizes the reading groups based on age or reading level. Reading levels include Pre-K, Kindergarten, Level One (kindergarten through second grade), Level Two (grades three through five), and Level Three (grades four through six). Make connections with the readers. Subject matter that is introduced in reading programs should allow participants to connect developmentally and educationally. To developmentally connect, material should target the age-appropriate developmental level. For example, kindergartners are focused on self and have short attention spans. Materials for this reading level should accommodate those characteristics. To connect educationally, the subject matter in a reading program should cover topics that are taught in school for the targeted age group. Emphasize standards and benchmarks.

Reading programs should consider what state or national standards for reading have been established and strive to achieve those with their participants. For example, national standards assume that "by first grade, the young reader has been introduced to syllables, basic prefixes, suffixes, and root words. . . At the appropriate levels, the child is expected to use these skills to decode unknown words," according to "Children's Writers Word Book" by Alijandra Mogilner and Tayopa Mogilner.

Clinical Programmes Many children today need additional reading instruction outside the regular classroom. These children not only need a reading programme geared to meet their needs, but they need further diagnosis and instruction provided by a reading resource teacher in a small group or clinical setting. The clinical programme is essentially for those children who have experienced severe reading disability and need very close attention. Referring a child for clinical treatment should not be one person’s decision but a team effort approach. All relevant professionals should be consulted. Students chosen for clinical attention must have the capability of reading at higher levels to justify the intensive teaching and attention. The best person to make this decision are the reading resource teacher and the classroom teacher. They should shoulder the responsibility for combining the necessary data and discuss together the feasibility of the clinical instruction.

The Clinical Reading Program is not a “tutoring” program. It is based on the very important concept that simply offering a child more of the same, a workbook, or a computer program does not meet the developmental needs of individuals with reading and learning problems. Treating these difficulties is not a “one size fits all” approach. Children learn differently for many reasons and successful intervention requires a precise and focused plan that addresses the child’s developmental strengths and weaknesses, relates them to academic problems and provides continued motivation and encouragement as progress continues. A comprehensive psychoeducational evaluation forms the basis for the individualized treatment. The Clinical Reading Program offers evaluation and remediation from a whole-child, context based and neurodevelopmental framework designed to produce effective and long-lasting outcomes.

Characteristics

Bottom-up strategy

Bottom-up strategies are text-based; the listener relies on the language in Depending on the child’s need (s) he/she is placed either in a remedial intervention programme or a special class. Accumulate data on the child’s attitude, learning style, social and emotional adjustments the ability to profit from special treatment. Must make provision for vision and hearing tests.

An overall instructional plan should be made and coordinated as much as possible with the regular programme. Most of the work will require direct teacher instruction and reinforcement. Students should know their strengths and weaknesses

Students should help plan their programme. It capitalizes on students’ strengths and teach their weaknesses. Must include activities to keep the child interested and involved.

Applicability

Read the following scenario and formulate your best strategies to help this student. Case Studies Rosey is a 6th grade student at Dean Elementary. She has struggled with school her entire life and has been in the resource program throughout her years of schooling. Because of an abusive situation in her home, Rosey was recently adopted by a new family. This new family is concerned about Rosey's educational experience and are bound to get her the help she needs to succeed.

Because of her parents close relationship with members of the school district, they have contacted district personnel and asked if they would check up on Rosey in her classroom and give them suggestions. When the district representative arrives in Rosey's classroom she is told that no one by that name is a student in the class. After contacting the office and told once again that indeed Rosey was in that class, the district representative headed back to the same classroom. This time she is shown to a little girl in the corner. When asked about Rosey's performance she is told she is told that Rosey just sits in the corner and does nothing. When the district representative talks with Rosey, Rosey tells her she believes that since she cannot read well she certainly can't understand her other subjects.