Prenatal development is divided into __________-mainperiods. The first two weeks of development are called the _________period; from the _---week through the _______-week isknown as the ____________period; and from this point until birth is the ________________period.
3;germinal;3rd; 8th; embryonic; featl
About one week after conception, the muliplying cells separate into our cells that will become the _________________--and inner cells form the nucleus that will become the _________________.
placenta; embryo
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The next significant event is the burrowing of the zygote into the lining of the uterus, a process called ______________. The process ______________(is/is not) automatic.
imlplantation;is not
At the beginning of the period of the embryo, a think line down the middle of the developing individual forms a structure that will become the ________ ___________, which becomes the ________-- _________ and eventually will develop into the _________ __________ ______. Briefly describe the major features of development during the 2nd month.
preimitive streak; neural tube; central nervous system
The head begins to take shape as eyes, ears, nose, and mouth start to form. A tiny blood vessel that will become the heart begins to pulsate. By the 5th week buds that will become arms and legs emerge. The upper arms, then the forearms, palms and webed fingers appear. Legs, feet and webbed toes follow. At the end of the 8th week, the embryo has all the basic organs and bady parts, except the sex organs.
At the end of the 8th week after conception, the embryo weighs about ____-- and is about ______________ in length. From the start of the ninth week after conception until birth, the organism is called the ________________.
1/30 ounce (1 gram); 1 inch (2.5 cm; fetus
If the fetus has a (n) _______---chromosome, the _________--gene on this chromosome sends a signal that triggers development of the ___________(male/female)sex organs. Without that gene, no signal is sent and the fetus begins to develop ______________(male/female)sex organs.
Y ; SRY; male; femal
Prenatal development is ___________, meaning that it proceeds from "head to tail," and __________, or from "near to far." By the end of the ____________month, the sex organs are visible on a ___________(also called _______________).
cephalacaudal; proximodistal; 3rd; ultrasound; sonogram
By the end of the 3rd month, the fetus weighs approximately _________ and is about _____-long. These figures _______(vary/do not vary) from fetus to fetus.
3 ounces (87 grams); 3 inches (7.5 cm); vary
Durling the 4,5th, and 6th months, the brain increases in size by a factor of _______. The brain develops new neurons in a process called _______ and new connections between them ((synapses in a process called ________________---. This neurological maturation is essential to the regulation of such basic body functions as _____________- and ______________.
six neurogenesis; synaptogenesis; breathing; sucking
The age at which a fetus has at least some chance of surviving outside the utuerus is called the ____________ __-- _, which occurs about _______ after conception. This barrier _______(has/has not) been reduced by advances in neonatal care, probably because maintaining life depends on some _________---response.
age of viability; 22 has not ; brain
Three crucial aspects of development in the last months of prenatal life are maturation of the _______,_______, and _______-systems.
neurological; respiratory; cardiovascular
By full term, brain growth is so extensive that the brai's advanced outer layer, called the ___________, forms sever folds in order to fit into the skull.
cortex
In the final ____________(how many?0 months, the fetus hears many sounds, including the mother's ______________-and ______________.
3; heartbeat; voice
My brain is developing well as a result of the processes of ________- and _______________. I am a ________________.
neurogenesis; synaptogenesis; fetus. Brain maturity is the key to reaching the age of viability.
Karen and Brad report to their neighbors that , 6 wks after conception, an ultrasound of their child-to-be revealed female sex organs. The neighbors are skeptical of their statement because
c
Male and remale sex organs do not develop until the 9th week.
About _____(hou many?) weeks after conception, the fetal brain signals the release of certain ______, specifically ____________, which signal the fetal brain for delivery and starts labor. The normal birth process begins when contractions become regular. The average length of labor is _____-hours for first births and ____hours for subsequent births.
38; hormoes; oxytocin: 12;7
Worldwide, the newborn is usally rated on the _____________ ________-, which assigns a score of0,1,or 2 to each of the following five characteristics: _________________ ___________________________________. A score below __________indicates that the newborn is in critical condition and requires immediate attention; if the score is ________or better, all is wel. This rating is made twice, at __________ minutes after birth and again at ________________minutes.
Apgar scale; heart rate, beathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes; 4; 7; one; five
In more than ______________9how many?) of U.S. births, a surgical procedure called a ______________ ________________ is performed.
one-third; cesarean section
Thinking critically: Planned home births are much more common in many nations in _________________ than they are in the ________________ _____________. In the poorest nations, most babies are born ________________(at home/in the hospital).
Europe; United States; at home
A traditional custom incorporated into a modern birth in the presence of a professional birth coach, or ___________________, to assist in the birth process.
doula
Harmful agents and conditions that can result in birth defects, called _____, include ______________________.
tertogens;viruses,drugs,chemicals, pollutants, extreme stress,a ndmalnutrition
Substances that impair the child's action and intellect by harming the bain are called _____________ ___________. Approximately _______ percent of all children are born with behavioral difficulties that could be connected to damage done during the prenatal period.
behavioral teratogens; 20
Thre crucial factors that determine whether a specific teratogen will cause harm, and of what nature, are the _____________________ of exposure, the ____________of exposure, and the developing organism's _______________ _______________ to damage from the substance.
timing; amount; genetic vulnerability
The time whn a particular part of the body is most susceptible to teratogenic damage is called its ____________ ___________. For physical structure and form, this is the entire period of the ___________. However, for ____________ teratogens, the entire prenatal period is critical.
critical period; embryo; behavioral
Some teratogens have a ______________ effect- that is, the substances are harmless until exposure reaches a certain level.
threshold
Ohter teratogens, when taken together, _______- and so are more harmful that when take separately.
interact
Genes are also known to affect the likelihood of neural-tube defects such as __________ ___________- or _____________. These defects occur more commonly in certain ___---groups, which led researchers to discover the allele that prevents that normal utiliztion of ________________ ________________.
spina bifida; anencephaly; ethnic; folic acid
Women are advised to avoid all __________________________________.
drugs, chemicals in pesticides, cleaning fluids, and cosmetics; medications
High doses of alcohol during pregnancy may cause _________ _____ _____. it later causes _______ ___________ ______, leading to hyperactivity, poor concentration, impaired spatial reasoning, and slow learning.
fetal alcohol syndrome; fetal alcohol effects
5 yr old Benjamin can't sit quitly and concentrate on a task for more than a minute at a time. Dr. Simmons, who is a teratologist, suspects that Benjamin may have been exposed to ______________during prenatal development.
behavioral teratogen
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. Rubella may cause blindness, deafness, and brain damage. In small doses, lead may be harmless; large does may produce brain damage in the fetus.
This is an example of a threshold effect?
some teratogens are vitually harmless until exposure reaches a certain level
Some teratogens are virtually harmless until they reach a certan level. For example, too much vitamin A can cause some abnormalities.
Suppose a woman drinks heavily during pregnancy, and her baby is born with fetal alcohol syndrome. Although alcohol is a proven teratogen, research indicates that the caue of the baby's condition may be
woman's genetic histroy, the level of exposure to the teratogen, the timing of exposure to the teratogen.

Researchers do not yet know which of these factors are necessary for alcohol to be teratogenic

Sylvia and stan, who are of British descent, are hoping to have a child. Dr. Caruthers asks for a complete nutritional history and is particularly concerned whn she discover that Sylvia may have a deficiency of folic acid in ther diet. Dr. Caruthers is probably worried about the risk of _______-in the couples offspring.
neural-tube defects. Folic acid is needed of the fetus to develop normally.
Newborns wo weigh less than - are classified as _________ ___________- babies. Below 3 pounds, 5 ounces, they are called ___________ _________________ _______________- babies; at less than 2 pound 3 ounces, theyare ______________ _____________ ____________- babies . Worldwide, rates of this condition ___________(vary/do not vary) from nation to nation.
2,500 grams (5 1/2 pounds); low-birthweight; very-low-birthweight; extremely-low-birthweight; vary
Babies who are born 3 or more weeks before the standard 38 wks have elapsed are called _________.
preterm
infants who weigh substantially less than they should, given how much time has passed since conception, are called _____________ _____________ _______________ _____________-.
small for gestational age
Cause of SGA incude maternal or fetal ___________________. however, maternal ________ use is a more common reason. About 25 percent of al LBW birth are linked to maternal use of ________________.
illness; drug; tobacco
Another other common reason for low birth-weight is maternal _______________. In addition, ________---- births are more likely to result in LBW. Consequently, the rate of LBW has increased dramatically with the use of ____________ _______________.
malnuturition; multiple; assistaed reproduction
LBW babies are more likely to become adults who have higher rates of ________, ______________ disease, and ______________.
obesity; heart; diabetes
The disorder ______________ _______________, which affects motor centers in the brain, often results from _______________ vulnerablility, worsened by exposure to _____________ and a preterm birth that involves _______________, a temporary lack of _______________during birth.
cerebral palsy; genetic; teratogens; anoxia; oxygen
3 yr old Kenny was born underwreight and premature. Today, he is small for his age what would be the most likely reason for Kenny's small size? _________________________-
Kenny's mother smoked heavily during her pregnancy. Although every psychoactive drug slow prenatal growth, tobacco is the worst and most prevalent cause of SGA.
What Apgar score in newborns would be most likely to have problems in body structure and functions?
Apgar score of 3.
If a newborn's Apgar score is below 4, the infant is in critical condition and needs immediat medical attention.
At birth, Clarence was classified as small for gestational age. It is likely that Clarence
suffered several months of prenatal malnutrition.
Where a baby is born generally will not affect its size at birth. And cetainly size is not hereditary.
Who is most likely to give birth to a low-birhweight child?
a 16 yr old,who diets frequently despite being underweight.

The risk factor for having an LBW baby is her weight (teens tend not to eat well and can be undernourished).

An infant is born 38 weeks after conception, weighing 4 pound. How would that infant be classified in terms of weight and timeing?
low-birthweight; small-for -gestational age.
38 weks is full term, so a baby at 4 pound would be small-for-gestational age and, of course, low birthweight.
An infant who was born at 35 weeks, weighing 6 pounds,would be called a _____________ infant.
preterm.
Any birth before 38 wks is preterm
One minute and five minutes after he was born; Malcolm was tested using the Apgar scale. The characteristics of a newborn tested by the scale are ___________________ __________________.
reflexes,breathing, muscle tone, heart rate, and color
The test that measures behavioral responsiveness in newborns is the __________ _________________ _________________ ______________-.
Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale
An involuntary rsponse to a stimulus is called a __________________-.
reflex
The involuntary response that causes the newborn to take the first breath even before the umbilical cord is cut is called the _____________ ___________. Other reflexive behaviors that maintain oxygen are _____________ ______________ and _________________.
breathing reflex; hiccups;sneezes;thrashing
Shivering, crying, and tucking the legs close to the body are examples of reflexes that help to maintain ________________ ____________ _________.
constant body temperature
A third set of reflexes manages ____________. One of these is the tendency of the newborn to suck anything that touches the lips; this is the ________________- reflex. Another is the tendency of newborns to turn their heads and start to suck when something brushes against their cheek; this is the ____________-reflex. Ohter important reflexes that facilitate this behavior are _______________ _____________________ , and ____________ _______________.
feeding;sucking;rooting;swallowing;crying;spitting up
At birth, the presence of the _______________reduces complications. this many explain the ______________ ___________, which says that although immigrants to the United States are _______________ and have less adequate ___________________ care, they have ______________ (healthier/less healthy) newborns than native-born mothers of the same ethnic background.
father; immigration paradox; poorer;prenatal;healthier
Many fathers experience symptoms of pregnancy, including _______________ ________________. These experiences are called ____________.
weight gain, indigestion, pain during labor; couvade
A crucial factor in the birth experience is the formation of a strong _________________________ __________________- between the prospective parents.
parental alliance
Some new mothers experience a profound feeling of sadness called ____________________ __________.
postpartum depression
The term used to describe the close relationship that begins within the first hours after birth is the _________________ - ____________________- ________________-. Research on monkeys using the stategy of _______________________ - ________________ suggests that bonding need not occur immediately.
parent-infant bond; cross-fostering
For vulnerable infants, parents are encouraged to help with early caregiving in the hospital. This __________-stess in both infant and parents. One example of early caregiving is ________ ________, in which mothers of low-birthweight infants spend extra time holding their infants betweent their breasts.
reduces; kangaroo care
reflexes that maintain oxygen supply
breathing, hiccupping, sneezing, thrashing
Maintaining constant body temperature
crying, shivering, tucking in their legs, pushing blankets away
reflexes that facilitate feeding
Sucking , rooting swallowing
Babinski
infants' toes fan upward when their feet are stroked
stepping reflex
Infants move their legs as if to walk when they are held upright and their feet touch a flat surface.
swimming
infants stretch out their arms and legs when they are held on their stomachs.
Palmar grasping reflex.
Infants grip things that touch their palms
Moro
infants fling their arms outwawrd and then clutch them against their chests in response to a loud noise
60) Your sister and brother-in-law, who are about to adopt a 6 month old are worried that the child will never bond with them. What advice should you offer?
c Tell them that bonding is a long-term process between parent and child that is determined by the nature of interaction throughout infancy, childhood, and beyond.
Prog Test 1:
1. The 3rd throuch the 8th week after conception is called the
embryonic period

ovum period:refers to the germinal period, is nto used in the text
fetal period: 9th week until birth
germinal period:covers the first two weeks

2. The primitive streak ddevelops into the
brain and spinal column
3. To say that tertogen has a threshold effect means that it is
virtually harmless until exposure reaches a certain level.
4. By the 8th week after conception, the embryo has almost all the basic organs EXCEPT the
male and female sex organs.

The sex organs do not begin to take shat until the fetal period at the 9th week

5. The most critical factor in attaining the age of viability is development of the
brain
6. An important nutrient that many women do not get in adequate amounts from the typical diet is
folic acid
7. An embryo begins to develop male sex organs if ____, and female sex organs if __________.
genes on the Y chromosome send a signal; no signal is sent from an X chromosome.
8) A teratogen
may be a virus, a drug, a chemical, or environmental pollutants.
teratogenc can cross placenta at anytime
terotogenic are agents in the environment, not heritable genes(although susceptibility to individual teratogens has a genetic component).
9) Among the characteristics of babies born with fetal alcohol syndrome are
slowed physical growth and behavior problems.
10)The birth process begins
when the uterus begins to contract at regular intervals to push the fetus out.
11)The Apgar scale is administered
twice, one minute and five minutes after birth
12 Most newborns weigh about
7 1/2 pounds
Matching:
1. embryonic period
the prenatal period when all major body structures begin to form
2. fetal period
the age when viability is attained.
3. placenta
the life-giving organ that nourishes the emroy and fetus
4. preterm
a bay born 3 or more weeks early
5. teratogens
agents and condtions that can damage the developing organism.
6. anoxia
lack of oxygen, which, if prolonged during the birth process, may lead to brain damage.
7. doula
a woman who hlpes with the birth process
8.critical period
term for the period during which a developing baby's body parts are most susceptible to damage.
9. primitive streak
the precursor of the central nervous systemd
10. fetal alcohol syndrome
characterized by abnormal facial characteristics, slowed growth, behavior problems and mental retardation.f
11. germinal period
when implantation occurs
12. couvade
symptoms of pregnancy experienced by fathers
13.) Pretest 1:
Low-birthweight babies born near the due date but weighing substantially less than they should
are called small for gestational age.
14)Approximately one out of every four low-birth weight births in the U.S. is caused by maternal use of
tobacco
15) A newborn is classified as preterm if her or she is newborn.
2 or more weeks early
16) A reflex is best defined as a (n)
involuntary response to a given stimulus.
Progress Test 2:
1. The phenomenon in which fathers experience the symptoms of pregnancy is called
couvade
coula is a woman who assists in the delivery process
anoxia - temporary loss of oxygen
Karagaroo care - LBW speand 1 hour a day holding baby.
2. In order, the correct sequence of prenatal stges of development is
germinal;embryo;fetus
3. Monika is preparing for the birth of her first child. If all proceeds normally, she can expect that her labor will last about
12 hours
The average length of labor for subsequent births is 7 hrs.
4. (Table 4.4) Tetracycleine and retinoic acid ..
can be harmful to the human fetus
5. (Table 4.4) The teratogen that , if not prevented by immunization, could cause deafness, blindness, and brain damage in the fetus is . ..
rubella (German measles)
6. Kangaroo care refers to
a program of increased involvement by mothers of low-birthweight infants.
7. Among the characteristics rated on the Apgar scale are
muscle tone and color
8. A newborn is classified as low birthweight if he or she weighs less than . .
5 1/2 pounds
9. A critical problem for preterm babies is . ..
breathing difficulties
10. Which of the following is NOT true regarding alcohol use and pregnancy?
most doctors in the U.S. advise pregnamt women to use alcohol in moderation during pregnancy.c
11. Neurogenesis refers to the process by which
the fetal brain develops new neurons
12. Which Apgar score indicates that a newborn is in normal health?
7
13. Synaptogenesis refers to the process by which ...
new connections between neurons develop.
14. When there is a stong parental alliance
mother and father cooperate because of their mutual commitment to their children, the parents agree to support each other intheir shared parental roles, children are likely to thrive.
15. The critical period for preventing physical defects appears to be the ..
fetal period
16) Some infant reflexes are critical for survival. Hiccups and sneezes help the infant maintain the ___________, and leg tucking maintains __________.
oxygen supply; a constant body terperature
True/False Questions:
1. The fetus becomes aware of the mother's voice.
T
2. Eight weeks after coneption, the embryo has formed almost all the basic organs.
T
3. Less that 1 percent of births in the U.S. take place in the home.
T
4. In general, behavioral teratogens have the ggreatest effect during the embryonic period.
F
Behavioral teratogens can affect the fetus at any time during the prenatal period.
5. The effects of cigarette smoking during pregnancy remain highly controversial.
F
There is no controversy about the damaging effects of smoking during pregnancy.
6. The Apgar scale is used to measure vital signs such as heart rate, breathing,a nd reflexes.
T
7. Newborns usually breathe on their own, moments after birth.
T
8. REsearch has shown that immediate mother-infant contact at birth isnecessary for the normal emotional development of the child.
F
Though highly desirable, mother-infant contact at birth is not necessary for the child's normal development orf for a good parent-child relationship. Man opportunities for bonding occur thoughout childhood.
9. Low birthweight is often correlated with maternal malnutrition.
T
10..Cesarean sections are rarely performed in the United States toay because of the resulting danger to the fetus.
F
About 32 % of births inthe U.S are now cesarean.
11. Reflexive hiccups, sneezes, and thrashing are signs that the infant's reflexes are not functioning properly.
F
Hiccups, sneezes and thrashing are comon during the first few days, and thye are entirely normal reflexes.
Key Terms:
1. germinal period
The 1st 2 wks of develpoment after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation, ar called the germinal period.

A germ cell is one from which a new organism can develop. The germinal period is the first stage in the development of the new organism.

germin2. embryonic period
The embryonic period is approximately the 3rd through the 8th week of prenatal development,when the basic forms of all body structures develop.
3. fetal period
Fron the 9th wk after conception until birth is the fetal period, when the organis grow in size and mature infunctioning.
4. implantation
Implantation is the process by which the zygoe burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected during growth.
5. embryo
Embryo is the name given to the developing human organism from about the 3rd through the 8th week after conception.
6. fetus
Fetus is the neame for the developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth.
7. ultrasound
An ultrasound is an image on an unborn fetus (or an internal organ) produced with hight-frequency sound waves; all called songram.
8. age of viability
About 22wks after coneption, the fetus attains the age of viability, at which point it has at least some slight chance of survival outside the uterus if specialized medical care is available.
9. Apgar scale
Newborns are rated at one and then at five minutes after birth according to the Apgar scale. this scale assigns a sore of 0,1 or 2 of each of 5 characteristics; heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, and reflexes. A scoreof 7 or better indicates that all is well.
10. cesarean section (c0section)
the fetus is removed from the mothe surgically (c section)
11. doula
is a woman who works alongside medical staff to assist a womant through labor, delivery, breast-feeding, and newborn care.
12. teratogens
are agents and conditions, such as viruses, drugs, chemicals, extreme stress, and malnutrition, that can impair prenatal development and lead to birth defects or even death.
13. behavioral teratogens
are agents and conditions that can damage the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning.
14. threshold effect
is the harmful effect of a substance that occurs when exposure to it reaches a certain level.
15. fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Prenata alcohol exposure may cause fetal alsohol syndrome (FAS), a cluster of birth defects that includes abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, behavior problems, and retarded mental development.
16. low birthweight (LBW)
A birthweight of less than 5 1/2 pound (2.500 grams _ is called LBW. LBW infants are at risk for many immdiate and lont-term problems
17. very low birthweight (VLBW)
A birthweight of less than 3 pounds, 5 ounces (1,500 grams) is called VLBW)
18 extremely low birthweight (ELBW)
A birthweight of less than 2 pounds, 5 ounces (1000 grams ) is called ELBW.
19. preterm birrth
When an infant is born 3 or more weeks before the due date, it is said to be a preterm birth
20. small for getational age (SGA)
infants who weigh substantially less than they should, given how much time has passed since conception, or small-for -dates.
21. cerbral palsy
is a muscular control disorder caused by damage to the brain's motor centers during or before birth.
22. anoxia
is a temporary lack of oxygent during the birth process that , if prolonged, can casue brain damage or death to the baby.
23. Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scall (NBAS)
NBAS is a test of newborn responsiveness tha tmeasure 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes.
24. reflex
is an unlearned, involuntary action or movement emitted in response to a specific stimulus.
25. Couvade
refers to the phenomenon in which some fathers experience symptoms of pregnancy and birth.
26. parental alliance
refers to the cooperation and mutual support between mother and father because of their mutual commitment to their children.
27. postpartum depression
is a new mother's feeling of sadness and inadequacy in the days and weeks after giving birth.
28. parent-infant bond
The term parent-infant bond describes the strong feeling of attachment between parent, and child in the early moments of their relationship together.
29. kangaroo care
occurs when the mother of a lLBW infant spends at least one hour a day holding her infant between her breast.s