The CS and US in the Little Albert experiment were a __________, respectively.
rat and loud sound
The CS in the Little Albert experiment was a __________.
rat
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The first person to use counterconditioning to treat a phobia was probably__________.
Mary Cover Jones
In treating Peter's fear of rabbits, Jones used a procedure called__________.
counterconditioning
The most recent variation of counterconditioning involves__________.
virtual reality
Barbara Rothbaum and colleagues used virtual reality exposure therapy to treat a fear of __________.
flying
One VRET program for treating spider phobias is called ______.
SpiderWorld
The studies of Carolyn and Arthur Staats demonstrating that neutral words paired with pleasant words become pleasant are examples of__________.
higher-order conditioning
The research that is most helpful in understanding racial prejudice is probably that of
__________.
Staats and Staats
The term used to refer to sexual behavior disapproved of by society is ___________.
paraphilias
The use of classical conditioning to change feelings (such as likes and dislikes) is sometimes called ___________.
evaluative conditioning
Pavlov found that when he paired painful stimuli with food, the dog came to show no distress at the painful stimuli. This experiment may help explain __________ behavior in humans.
masochistic
People are most likely to tolerate painful and humiliating events if these events consistently __________.
precede positive events
In ______ therapy, a stimulus that elicits an inappropriate response is paired with a negative stimulus such as shock or an emetic drug.
aversion
Barry Maletzky treated exhibitionists by having them imagine that they were about to perform the inappropriate behavior, and then _______.
exposing them to an unpleasant odor
A follow-up of exhibitionists treated by Barry Maletzky with a variation of aversion therapy showed that those who had undergone treatment involuntarily ____________.
improved as much as voluntary patients
The CS and US in the Garcia et al. experiment were__________.
flavored water and radiation
Garcia's first experiment on taste aversion was unusual in that the ________.
interval between CS and US was several minutes
Garcia's interest in the role of learning in taste aversions may have begun when he became sick after eating ____________.
licorice
Blue jays usually do not eat Monarch butterflies. This is an example of a(n) __________.
conditioned taste aversion
Senatorial candidate Smith's popularity increased dramatically after he was seen on television shaking hands with a very popular public figure. This is probably an example of__________.
emotional conditioning
Morgan Doran and his colleagues found that after taste aversion training, ___________ would remove
weeds from a vineyard without damaging the grape plants.
sheep
Elnora Stuart and colleagues paired slides of pleasant scenes with__________.
toothpaste
Researchers tried to change the preferences for two brands of ____________ but were unsuccessful when the subjects were strongly attached to a brand.
soft drinks
Shepard Siegel's work suggests that some deaths attributed to _____________ are actually the result of conditioning.
drug overdose
Diana Woodruff-Pak found that people who condition slowly are more likely to develop ___________.
dementia
If a person sneezes after coming close to a realistic-looking artificial flower, you can be pretty sure that he or she is__________.
allergic to pollen
Research shows that when women receiving chemotherapy return to the hospital, they show __________.
decreased immune functioning
Conditioned Reflexes and Psychiatry was written by __________.
Ivan Pavlov
The phenomenon of __________ suggests that we should be more likely to develop aversions to novel foods than to familiar ones.
latent inhibition
E. L. Thorndike's studies of learning started as an attempt to understand _______.
animal intelligence
Thorndike complained that _______ evidence provided a "supernormal psychology of animals."
anecdotal
In one of Thorndike's puzzle boxes, a door would fall open when a cat stepped on a treadle, thus allowing the cat to reach food outside the box. Eventually the cat would step on the treadle as soon as it
was put into the box. Thorndike concluded that ________.
treadle stepping increased because it had a "satisfying effect"
Thorndike plotted the results of his puzzle box experiments as graphs. The resulting curves show a _____ with succeeding trials.
decrease in time
The law of effect says that _______.
behavior is a function of its consequences
Thorndike made important contributions to all of the following fields except _____.
social psychology
Thorndike emphasized that we learn mainly from _______.
success
Operant learning is sometimes called ________ learning.
instrumental
________ gave Skinner's experimental chamber the name, "Skinner box."
Clark Hull
Operant learning may also be referred to as _______.
instrumental learning
Mary's grandmother, Pearl, is from the Old Country. Although she knows some English, she continues to speak her native tongue. Pearl can't go anywhere without a member of the family because she can't communicate with people about prices, directions, bus routes, etc. Pearl's resistance to learning English is most likely the result of ______.
the benefits she receives for not speaking English
Mary decides to try to modify Pearl's behavior (see above item). She and the rest of the family refuse to respond to any comment or request by Pearl that they know she is capable of expressing in English. For example, if during dinner she says, "Pass the potatoes" in English, she gets potatoes; if she says it in her native language she gets ignored. The procedure being used to change Pearl's behavior is ______.
positive reinforcement
Charles Catania identified three characteristics that define reinforcement. These include all of the following except _______.
the consequence of the behavior must be positive
The one thing that all reinforcers have in common is that they _______.
strengthen behavior
The number of operant procedures indicated in the contingency square is ______.
four
Positive reinforcement is sometimes called _______.
reward learning
Negative reinforcement is also called _______.
escape-avoidance training
Alan Neuringer demonstrated that with reinforcement, _____ could learn to behave randomly.
pigeons
Skinner describes some of his most important research in _______.
The Behavior of Organisms
The author of your text calls Skinner the ______.
Darwin of behavior science
The opposite of a conditioned reinforcer is a ______.
primary reinforcer
All of the following are recognized kinds of reinforcers except ______.
classical
Donald Zimmerman found that a buzzer became a positive reinforcer after it was repeatedly paired with ______.
water
The level of deprivation is less important when the reinforcer used is a(n) _______ reinforcer.
secondary
Secondary reinforcers are also called _______ reinforcers.
conditioned
Money is a good example of a _______ reinforcer.
generalized
The Watson and Rayner experiment with Little Albert may have involved operant as well as Pavlovian learning because the loud noise ______.
occurred as Albert reached for the rat
Studies of delayed reinforcement document the importance of ______.
contiguity
Schlinger and Blakely found that the reinforcing power of a delayed reinforcer could be increased by ________.
preceding the reinforcer with a stimulus
An action that improves the effectiveness of a reinforcer is called a ______.
motivating operation
________ demonstrated that electrical stimulation of the brain could be reinforcing.
Olds and Milner
_____is a neurotransmitter that seems to be important in reinforcement.
Dopamine
Clark Hull's explanation of reinforcement assumes that reinforcers _____.
reduce a drive
The best title for the figure below is ______.
The Effect of Practice without Reinforcement
Sylvia believes that the reinforcement properties of an event depend on the extent to which it provides access to high probability behavior. Sylvia is most likely an advocate of _______ theory.
relative value
Premack's name is most logically associated with _______.
relative value theory
The Premack principle says that reinforcement involves _______.
a relation between behaviors
According to ___________ theory, schoolchildren are eager to go to recess because they have been deprived of the opportunity to exercise.
response deprivation
The distinctive characteristic of the Sidman avoidance procedure is that _______.
the aversive event is not signaled
Douglas Anger proposed that there is a signal in the Sidman avoidance procedure. The signal is ________.
time
According to the one-process theory of avoidance, the avoidance response is reinforced by _______.
a reduction in the number of aversive events
Shaping is the reinforcement of successive _______.
approximations of a desired behavior
The figure below from your text illustrates _______.
shaping
Skinner and two students discovered shaping in the course of teaching a pigeon to ________.
bowl
All of the following are useful tips for shaping behavior except ________.
never back up
The first step in building a behavior chain is to do a ______.
task analysis
Skinner trained Plyny to perform a behavior chain. Plyny was a ______.
rat
The classic experiments on insightful problem solving were done with chimpanzees by _________.
Wolfgang Kohler
Insightful problem solving is best viewed as an example of _______.
operant learning
The banana experiment by Robert Epstein and colleagues, which paralleled Kohler's experiments with chimps, demonstrated that insight ______.
depends on an organism's learning history
In her work with porpoises, Karen Pryor gradually realized that what she had to do to get novel behavior from the animals was to _______.
reinforce novel behavior
Some studies show that offering rewards reduces creativity. Research by Robert Eisenberger and others suggests that this is because in these studies _______.
the rewards were not contingent on creative behavior
Probably the best way of increasing the creativity of stories in an English class is to _______.
praise particularly original stories
Superstitous behavior is behavior that occurs repeatedly despite the fact that it __________.
does not produce the reinforcers that maintain it
Koichi Ono got superstitious behavior in university students by providing points noncontingently at regular intervals. One student ended up repeatedly ______.
jumping to touch the ceiling
Studies of learned helplessness use the ______ procedure.
escape training
One idea for preventing learned helplessness is _______ training.
immunization
Robert Eisenberger and his colleagues demonstrated that reinforcement can establish learned ______.
industriousness
Stuart Vyse's book on superstition is called _______.
Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition