Lal kurti is an old literally meaning red shirt is a locality in the heart of firozpur cantonment in district firozpur of punjab , india. It is a residential area from the british colonial era. It is situated in firozpur cantt in district firozpur which played a major role during Anglo Sikh war also known as battle of sara garhi. lal kurti has a population of around 2000 people which include a majority of Punjabi and a minority of Hindus. There were Muslims prior to partition but they all immigrated to Pakistan and other people settled her Royal air force The RAF was founded in 1918, toward the end of World War I by merging the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service. After the war, the RAF was greatly reduced in size and during the inter-war years it was used to "police" the British Empire. The RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War. During the war it was responsible for the aerial defence of Great Britain, the strategic bombing campaign against Germany and tactical support to the British Army around the world 1857 revolt.
The sepoys, a generic term used for native Indian soldiers of the Bengal Army, had their own list of grievances against the Company Raj, mainly caused by the ethnic gulf between the British officers and their Indian troops. The British had issued new gunpowder cartridges that were widely believed to be greased with cow or pig fat, which insulted both Hindus and Muslims. Other than Indian units of the British East India Company's army, much of the resistance came from the old aristocracy, who were seeing their power steadily eroded under the B.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to Company power in that region, and was contained only with the fall of Gwalior on 20 June 1858.
The rebellion is also known as India's First War of Independence, the Great Rebellion, the Indian Mutiny, the Revolt of 1857, the Uprising of 1857, the Sepoy Rebellion and the Sepoy Mutiny. The Mutiny was a result of various grievances. However the flashpoint was reached when the soldiers were asked to bite off the paper cartridges for their rifles which they believed were greased with animal fat, namely beef and pork. This was, and is, against the religious beliefs of Hindus and Muslims, respectively.
Other regions of Company-controlled India – such as Bengal, the Bombay Presidency, and the Madras Presidency – remained largely calm. In Punjab, the Sikh princes backed the Company by providing soldiers and support. The large princely states of Hyderabad, Mysore, Travancore, and Kashmir, as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana, did not join the rebellion. In some regions, such as Oudh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence. Maratha leaders, such as Lakshmibai, the Rani of Jhansi, became folk heroes in the nationalist movement in India half a century later; however, they themselves "generated no coherent ideology" for a new order. The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858. It also led the British to reorganize the army, the financial system and the administration in India. India was thereafter directly governed by the crown as the new British Raj.
World war 1 The Indian Army during World War I contributed a number of divisions and independent brigades to the European, Mediterranean and the Middle East theatres of war in World War I. One million Indian troops would serve overseas, of whom 62,000 died and another 67,000 were wounded. In total 74,187 Indian soldiers died during the war world war 2 e Indian Army began the war, in 1939, numbering just under 200,000 men.
By the end of the war it had become the largest volunteer army in history, rising to over 2. 5 million men in August 1945. Serving in divisions of infantry, armour and a fledgling irborne force, they fought on three continents in Africa, Europe and Asia. The Indian Army fought in Ethiopia against the Italian Army, in Egypt, Libya and Tunisia against both the Italian and German Army, and, after the Italian surrender, against the German Army in Italy. However, the bulk of the Indian Army was committed to fighting theJapanese Army, first during the British defeats in Malaya and the retreat from Burma to the Indian border; later, after resting and refitting for the victorious advance back into Burma, as part of the largest British Empire army ever formed.
These campaigns cost the lives of over 36,000 Indian servicemen, while another 34,354 were wounded, and 67,340 became prisoners of war. Their valour was recognised with the award of some 4,000 decorations, and 38 members of the Indian Army were awarded the Victoria Cross or the George Cross Cause of world war 2 The main causes of World War II was the desire and ability of Adolf Hitler, in control of Nazi Germany, to dominate Europe and gain control especially of the agrarian resources to the east of Germany.
In order for the German people to get "Lebensraum" (living space). He was allied with the Empire of Japan, which desired to dominate Asia, including the much larger nation of China, as well as Italy (which had ambitions to control parts of the Balkans) and several smaller countries. Hitler had successfully taken control of Austria and Czechoslovakia by early 1939, when Britain and France reversed their policy of appeasement and switched to a policy of deterrence, warning they would declare war if Germany attacked Poland. Hitler thought they were bluffing.
He signed an agreement with the Soviet Union in late August that divided up Poland and the Baltic states. Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. Hitler's invasion of Poland drove Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany, and World War II had begun. World 1 causes The main causes of World War I, which began in central Europe in late July 1914 and finished in 1918, included many factors, such as the conflicts and hostility of the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, alliances, imperialism, and nationalism played major roles in the conflict as well.
The immediate origins of the war, however, lay in the decisions taken by statesmen and generals during the Crisis of 1914, casus belli for which was theassassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (the Archduke of Austria Hungary) and his wife Sophie by Gavrilo Princip, an irredentist Serb and member of the Serbian terrorist organization, the Black Hand. The Royal Indian Navy mutiny (also called the Royal Indian Revolt or Bombay Mutiny) encompasses a total strike and subsequent revolt by Indian sailors of the Royal Indian Navy on board ship and shore establishments at Bombay (Mumbai) harbour on 18 February 1946.
From the initial flashpoint in Bombay, the revolt spread and found support throughout British India, fromKarachi to Calcutta and ultimately came to involve 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors. It was repressed by force by the British Royal Navy. Only the Communist Party supported the strikers; the Congress and the Muslim League condemned it. Nationalist historians on the far left have looked at the mutiny as a revolt against the British Raj and imperial rule. The British East India Company's armies.
British rule in India was continually expanding and consolidating. The British East India Company had grown in less than two centuries from a trading concern to be the agency for the British Government in India. It had started recruiting its own Indian troops in the mid-eighteenth century. The company administered its territory as three Presidencies based in Madras, Bombay andBengal, each with its own army. By the start of Victoria's reign, there was little opposition to British rule in Madras and Bombay, and the Bengal Army was consequently the largest and most often employed.
In 1806, at the time of the Vellore Mutiny, the combined strength of the three presidencies' armies was 154,500, making them one of the largest standing armies in the world. The Company also recruited its own "European" white units, which included some infantry battalions and several companies of field or horse artillery, mainly from Ireland. These were supplemented by units of the British Army, referred to in India as "Queen's" troops, whose maintenance was paid for by the Company. The most senior appointments in the Company's armies were reserved for British Army officers.
The establishment of Native Infantry regiments included twenty-six British officers and two British warrant officers. All Indian personnel were subordinate to even the most junior British officers, although junior British officers were required to become proficient in Urdu, or whatever other Indian language was in use in their units, before they could be eligible for promotion. The highest rank an Indian soldier could aspire to was Subadar-Major (Rissaldar-Major in regular cavalry units), effectively a senior subaltern rank.
In Irregular cavalry and infantry units, which were locally recruited from distinct communities or absorbed from the armies of annexed "princely" states, there were usually only seven British officers and Indian personnel had more influence. The Company maintained its own institution for training its British officers at the Addiscombe Military Seminary. Promotion in the Company's army went strictly by seniority for both British and Indian personnel.
Like the system of Purchase, this worked against the proper development of officers' careers and abilities, as the system did not encourage merit or initiative, promotion was slow and ill-suited soldiers or officers could nevertheless succeed to high rank merely by surviving long enough. Many promising junior British officers were tempted away from regimental duty to serve on the staff or as civil administrators, while Indian officers often became embittered at their lack of authority or opportunities.
The Company's army was dressed and equipped much the same as the British Army, although the Irregular units generally wore uniforms derived from the area where they were recruited. In the field, the company's British officers generally permitted themselves more suitable dress than the over-decorated and less convenient uniforms of Queen's officers. The artillery was generally lighter than the equivalent British Army equipment (6-pounder instead of 9-pounder horse artillery, for example) to allow for the harsher climate and generally more difficult terrain.
Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troopsstationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base. The garrison is usually in a city,town, fort, castle or similar. "Garrison town" is a common expression for any town that has a military base nearby. Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troopsstationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.
The garrison is usually in a city,town, fort, castle or similar. "Garrison town" is a common expression for any town that has a military base nearby. Cawnpore was an important garrison town for the East India Company forces. Located on the Grand Trunk Road, it lay on the approaches to Sindh (Sind), Punjab and Awadh (Oudh). By June 1857, the Indian rebellion had spread to several areas near Cawnpore, namely Meerut, Agra, Mathura, and Lucknow. However, the Indian sepoys at Cawnpore initially remained loyal.
The British General at Cawnpore, Hugh Wheeler, knew the local language, had adopted local customs, and was married to an Indian woman. He was confident that the sepoys at Cawnpore would remain loyal to him, and sent two British companies (one each of the 84th and 32nd Regiments) to besieged Lucknow. The British contingent in Cawnpore consisted of around nine hundred people, including around three hundred military men, around three hundred women and children, and about one hundred and fifty merchants, business owners, drummers, engineers and others.
The rest were the native servants, who left soon after the commencement of the siege. The British originally came to India to trade. Gradually they worked themselves into power, and India became one of the countries of the British Empire. In Pune [Poonah, Poona] and its suburb Khadki [Kirkee] they had a large military set-up. It was therefore only natural that the British felt the need to have a church for their military personnel. Thus garrison churches came into existence.
This is the oldest established Church in Poona or its neighbourhood. The Church was built by Lieut. Nash of the East India Company's Engineers. The tower at the west end of the church is surmounted by a mixture of lath and plaster. Being the oldest and the most represented Church of Poona St. Mary's naturally contains a great many memorials of "sages who wrote and warriors who bled". The stone and brass plaques commemorate many noble names.