2. Reflective Observation
3. Abstract Conceptualization
4. Active Experimentation
Learners involve themselves fully and without bias in learning experiences
Engaging in an experience or activity
Being involved in a new experience
Games, role play, discussion
Observe and reflect on these experiences from multiple perspectives
What did I experience?
What were the results?
Lectures, tests, observing, group projects
Formulate concepts that integrate their observations into theory
Gaining knowledge/skills from experience; creating theories to explain observations
Why did this happen?
What do the results imply?
How did I influence the outcomes?
Theory readings, studying along
Put such theories to use in making decisions and solving problems
What will I do differently next time?
Feedback, small group discussions
Inclined to be good problem solves/decision makers
Effective at applying ideas to practical situations
Excel at tasks involving identification of the single best answer
Display deductive reasoning
Would rather deal with technical tasks
Prone to premature decision making and solving the wrong problem
Imaginative and aware of meaning/values
View situations from many perspectives
Interest in people
Indecisive and overwhelmed by alternatives
Excel at inductive reasoning
Ability to create theories
Value ideas for their logical soundness
Prefer to focus on ideas/concepts
May be impractical
Open to new experiences
Good at adapting to changing circumstances
Can get caught up in activity for activity's sake
Occurs from birth until adolescence
Extends through formal schooling or career training and the early experiences of adulthood
Likely to begin midcareer though much individual variability characterizes the timing of this transition