Four Stages
1. Concrete Experience
2. Reflective Observation
3. Abstract Conceptualization
4. Active Experimentation
Concrete Experience
Feelings
Learners involve themselves fully and without bias in learning experiences
Engaging in an experience or activity
Being involved in a new experience
What happened?
Games, role play, discussion
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Reflective Observation
Watching
Observe and reflect on these experiences from multiple perspectives
What happened?
What did I experience?
What were the results?
Lectures, tests, observing, group projects
Abstract Conceptualization
Thinking
Formulate concepts that integrate their observations into theory
Gaining knowledge/skills from experience; creating theories to explain observations
So what?
Why did this happen?
What do the results imply?
How did I influence the outcomes?
Theory readings, studying along
Active Experimentation
Doing
Put such theories to use in making decisions and solving problems
Now what?
What will I do differently next time?
Feedback, small group discussions
Comprehending/Grasping Dimension
CE & AC
Transforming/Processing Dimension
AE & RO
Learning Styles
Convergers
Divergers
Assimilators
Accommodators
Convergers
AC/AE
Inclined to be good problem solves/decision makers
Effective at applying ideas to practical situations
Excel at tasks involving identification of the single best answer
Display deductive reasoning
Would rather deal with technical tasks
Prone to premature decision making and solving the wrong problem
Divergers
CE/RO
Imaginative and aware of meaning/values
View situations from many perspectives
Interest in people
Feeling oriented
Indecisive and overwhelmed by alternatives
Assimilators
AC/RO
Excel at inductive reasoning
Ability to create theories
Value ideas for their logical soundness
Prefer to focus on ideas/concepts
May be impractical
Accommodators
CE/AE
Doers
Implement plans
Complete tasks
Open to new experiences
Good at adapting to changing circumstances
Trial-and-error approach
Can get caught up in activity for activity's sake
3 Stages of Development
Acquisition
Specialization
Integration
Acquisition
Basic learning abilities and cognitive structures develop
Occurs from birth until adolescence
Specialization
Social, educational and organizational socialization forces shape the development of a particular learning style
Extends through formal schooling or career training and the early experiences of adulthood
Integration
Person emphasizes the expression of his/her nondominant adaptive modes/learning styles in work and personal contexts
Likely to begin midcareer though much individual variability characterizes the timing of this transition