Learning a skill correctly cannot occur without _________ because this serves as a learner's guide to performing the task correctly.
A) feedback from a teacher, coach, or peer
B) mental practice during meditation
C) harsh criticism from a coach
D) conditioning and training the skill
Motor behavior researchers are interested in the changes in motor behavior across the life span because such changes
A) indicate relationships to health
B) all of these
C) indicate the influence of training and practice
D) provide information about the effects of nature and nurture
Motor behavior includes three subdisciplines. Which is NOT one of the subdisciplines?
A) motor performance
B) motor development
C) motor learning
D) motor control
What differentiates motor learning (ML) from motor control (MC)?
A) the kinds of research conducted
B) the kinds of studies conducted
C) changes in time versus changes in growth
D) acquisition versus neuromuscular activity
Knowledge of results focuses on ____________, whereas knowledge of performance focuses on ___________.
A) outcome; practice
B) reaction time; learning
C) the process and nature of movement; outcome
D) outcome; process of movement
Which type of experimental design is used in motor behavior research?
A) within subjects
B) between subjects
C) descriptive
D) all of the above
What is the best way to set goals to achieve the best results?
A) Set a goal that you cannot achieve.
B) Set a goal you can easily achieve.
C) Set a goal you can moderately achieve.
D) both b and c
Boys and girls are more similar than different in motor skill performance.
A) True
B) False
Pedagogy, the study of teaching, applies motor behavior research.
A) True
B) False
Skill acquisition, one of the five areas studied in motor control, is about learning.
A) false
B) true
While his players are working out, a coach notices a mistake in an athlete's form. The coach tells the player what might work better and how to do it. What type of feedback is the coach giving the player?
A) intrinsic feedback
B) extrinsic feedback
C) expert feedback
D) frequent feedback
Practicing a skill is most likely to bring about which of the following?
A) endurance
B) all of these
C) conditioning
D) learning
What theory explains how a motor program acquires a general set of rules from practice of similar movements?
A) memory drum theory
B) motor expertise theory

C) schema theory
D) motor program theory

What is electromyography?
A) the finding that only practice conditions similar to game performance will benefit future game performance
B) a movement task with which the subject does not have prior experience
C) a system for monitoring and recording the electrical activity in muscles
D) a cognitive mechanism that controls movement
Practice guarantees improved performance.
A) True
B) False
This time period is considered one of the greatest eras of interest in motor behavior.
A) the Golden Age of Sports (1920s)
B) the Cold War (1940-1990s)
C) the Vietnamese War (1959-1975)
D) World War II (1939-1945)
Who wrote the first major theoretical paper from the discipline of kinesiology on what was known as the memory drum theory?
A) Shirl Hoffman
B) Franklin Henry
C) George Stelmach
D) Richard Schmidt
The principle that practice should match the performance environment for maximal improvement is
A) fastest acquisition
B) practice enhancement
C) quality of practice
D) specificity of practice
The type of performance experience engaged in for the express purpose of refining motor control function to improve skill is known as
A) training
B) skill
C) practice
D) learning
Which of the following is most critical in helping students develop skills?
A) adequate instruction
B) ample practice opportunities
C) specific feedback
D) ample appropriate practice opportunities
Which experimental design compares two groups (randomly formed) on the same task (movement speed)?
A) experiment design
B) within-group design
C) between-group design
D) research design
The focus of motor behavior research today includes
A) potential treatments of disease and injury, including Parkinson's disease
B) cognition and memory
C) shattering the myth that motor control diminishes with age
D) elite performance
Research on motor expertise often compares __________ to determine how they differ within various sports.
A) novices and experts
B) experience and age
C) skills and performance
D) motor learning and motor control
Motor programs store exact instructions in the muscles for each possible movement.
A) True
B) False
Which of the following best exemplifies the concept of training?
A) increases ability to produce greater quantities of physical activity
B) increases capacity for organizing movement patterns in complex ways to accomplish specific goals
C) is a cognitive process that leads to a reorganization of the nervous system
D) leads to relatively permanent changes
Feedback that produces the greatest improvement in performance and potentially produces the greatest learning
A) is knowledge of results
B) varies depending on the expertise of the performer
C) is intrinsic; extrinsic feedback does little to improve performance
D) is given after every performance of a skill
What type of researcher studies differences in growth patterns in children ages 2 to 12 years?
A) motor behavior expert
B) motor control expert
C) motor development expert
D) motor learning expert
Motor behavior research is closely related to biomechanics.
A) True
B) False
Who was the father of motor behavior?
A) Franklin Henry
B) George Stelmach
C) Robert Singer
D) Richard Schmidt
All of the following examine learning (rather than performance) EXCEPT
A) a test of accuracy immediately after practice for accuracy
B) analysis of a football game after two weeks of intrasquad practice
C) a comprehensive final exam
D) measuring RT after two days without practice on the RT task
The optimal arousal level for an individual's performance is
A) the same for all types of tasks in sport and exercise
B) the highest level of physiological "psych-up" attainable
C) the same for all individuals
D) moderate and differs according to situational demands of various activities
Most of the stress associated with physical activity participation is based on
A) fear of physical harm
B) fear of failure and fear of evaluation
C) type A personality dispositions
D) anxiety about social physique
What is the state of bodily energy or physical and mental readiness?
A) anxiety
B) stress
C) cohesion
D) arousal
Research evidence exists to support the popular notion that sport builds character in humans.
A) True
B) False
Who was the first to devote a significant portion of his or her career to sport psychology?
A) John Silva
B) Dorothy Harris
C) Coleman Griffith
D) Bruce Ogilvie
Which of the following statements about motivation is (are) true?
A) Internal and controllable attributions enhance motivation.
B) Each person is motivated by different goals or definitions of success.
C) Humans are motivated to be self-determining.
D) all of these
n what decade was sport psychology recognized as an academic subdiscipline?
A) 1980s
B) 1970s
C) 1930s
D) 1920s
Personality research in sport has shown that successful and less successful athletes do not differ in traits, but rather in their use of cognitive strategies and coping mechanisms.
A) True
B) False
Group cohesion is facilitated by
A) a positive identity related to group membership
B) all of the above
C) understanding and acceptance of roles in the group
D) emphasizing uniqueness such as clothing or nicknames
What do sport psychology and exercise psychology (disciplines of kinesiology) focus on?
A) the study of social environment, sexuality, and emotion
B) the study of human action in a social environment
C) the study of human thought and emotion
D) the study of human thought, emotion, and physical activity
Which of the following describes current thinking about sport and personality?
A) There is no "athletic personality."
B) Some anxiety is good for aspects of life.
C) Specific personalities lead people to engage in a variety of sports.
D) Sport does build character in most people but not in everyone.
The presence of spectators helps young athletes concentrate better when they are learning skills for the first time.
A) True
B) False
Which of the following statements about the effects of exercise on personality is true?
A) all of these
B) Fitness training improves self-concept.
C) Prolonged physical activity is associated with decreases in depression.
D) Exercise decreases anxiety.
Which is NOT a goal of sport and exercise psychology?
A) to enhance the sport and exercise experience for those who participate in physical activity
B) to understand the psychological effects derived from participation in physical activity
C) to understand the social-psychological factors that influence people's behavior and performance in physical activity
D) to predict the long-term outcome of the participant in continuing an exercise program
Which of the following is probably the "youngest" kinesiology discipline?
A) sport and exercise psychology
B) motor learning
C) exercise physiology
D) biomechanics
Perceived barriers to physical activity may be
A) real
B) imagined
C) not a or b
D) both a and b
Most of the differences between females and males seen in physical activity behaviors are the result of socialization, not biology.
A) True
B) False
Family support and modeling are highly predictive of the physical activity participation of children.
A) True
B) False
What are the ABCs of sport psychology?
A) applied, behavior, conditions
B) athletes, behavior, competition
C) affect, behavior, cognitions
D) attitude, behavior, control
Arousal would best be defined as
A) a negative response to a stressful situation characterized by apprehension and feelings of threat
B) intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
C) a state of physical and psychological activation or readiness
D) a process in which individuals perceive an imbalance between their response capabilities and the demands of the situation
What differentiates sport psychologists from exercise psychologists?
A) effects versus affects
B) between groups versus within groups
C) performance versus health
D) training versus skill
Relatively stable mind-sets toward physical activity are known as
A) personalities
B) dispositions
C) feelings
D) attitudes
Research on the effects of sport participation on personality has shown that
A) sport participation increases aggression
B) sport builds character
C) competition reduces antisocial behaviors
D) sport participation teaches higher levels of moral reasoning
Which happens first in a person who becomes burned out?
A) feeling of mental, emotional, and physical exhaustion
B) negative moods and feelings and a negative change in response to other people
C) feeling of a lack of accomplishment
D) becoming disillusioned with involvement in an activity
The elderly tend to become less physically active because of social isolation.
A) True
B) False
What is the key to reducing social loafing in groups?
A) setting individual goals
B) asking group members to focus on group performance
C) increasing group size
D) monitoring and evaluating individual performance
Which of the following were significant events that marked the 1970s as the decade in which sport psychology became established as a legitimate subdiscipline in the study of physical activity?
A) Coleman Griffith began his research at the University of Illinois.
B) Systematic research programs were established in universities.
C) A journal focusing on sport psychology was developed.
D) both a and b
An important skill for a physical activity specialist, __________ , or allied health rehabilitative specialist is to be able to choose the relevant mechanical principles that apply to the movement of interest or to a phenomenon occurring inside the body.
A) sport psychologist
B) biomechanist
C) ergonomist
D) exercise physiologist
Industries in the 1950s needed to know the measurements of people to design seats, cockpits, and instrument panels that fit these users. What is the study of people's physical dimensions that provided this type of information?
A) aesthetics
B) mechanics
C) prosthetics
D) anthropometrics
One of the earliest known scientists is
A) Kenyon
B) Aristotle
C) Kretchmar
What is the third step in a model of analysis for biomechanics?
A) Understand motions and mechanics.
B) Observe or measure.
C) State performance goals.
D) Consider influencing factors.
Which of the following are the most common forces acting on a human performer?
A) friction, gravity, ground reaction forces, air or water resistance
B) heat, friction, gravity, air or water resistance
C) air pressure, gravity, ground reaction forces, air or water resistance
D) friction, gravity, ground reaction forces, gas forces
Thomas Cureton was believed by some to have coined the term biomechanics (although others believe that Europeans may have used the word first).
A) True
B) False
Which of the following is least likely to be a concept studied in biomechanics?
A) law of inertia
B) torque
D) action-reaction law
Which of the following is NOT a goal of biomechanics?
A) to understand the interaction between the human user and the mechanics of equipment or devices to improve performance and well-being
B) to understand how the basic laws of physics affect human motion and the structure and function of the human body
C) to solve particular problems with the motion and structure of the human body
D) to understand the relationship between mechanical laws and movement techniques of specific movements to improve the outcome or effectiveness of movements
Biomechanists typically work in which of the following settings?
I. rehabilitation centers in which gait analyses are often used
II. universities, where they teach and perform research
III. occupational consulting organizations that provide assistance to companies in analyzing tasks to determine how they could be reconfigured to reduce fatigue and injuries
IV. a fitness facility that targets women
A) I, II, and IV
B) I, II, and III
C) II, III, and IV
D) I, III, and IV
A golf ball stays on the tee until the golf club hits it. Which of the following principles best describes why this occurs?
A) law of projectile motion
B) An object will gain more momentum if more force is applied to it across a period of time.
C) Newton's law of inertia
D) Newton's law of action-reaction
A person applies force to a screwdriver, causing the screwdriver to turn. The person has generated
A) a fluid force
B) a ground reaction force
C) a hydraulic force
D) torque
Specialists who apply their knowledge of physiology, biomechanics, anatomy, and psychology in order to improve the movements, working environments, and training programs in the workplace are called
A) occupational engineers
B) work specialists
C) occupational therapists
D) ergonomists or human factors engineers
What is known about injury mechanisms due to forces?
I. Factors related to the performer (e.g., anatomy) may predispose certain individuals to injuries.
II. The number of repetitions that a person can perform per week without injury should not exceed 2000.
III. The amount of force that can cause an injury is dependent on the rate at which the force is applied to a tissue.
A) I and III
B) I and II
C) II and III
D) I, II, and III
Which is the most common force acting on a human performer?
A) kinetic output
B) surface area
C) fluid resistance
D) weight of performer
Biomechanist A describes a specific performance, while biomechanist B wants to look at the relationship between performance and specific forces. Which of these two is most likely to use inferential statistics in his work?
A) biomechanist B
B) biomechanist A
C) Both are equally likely to use inferential procedures.
D) The answer cannot be determined from the information given.
Biomechanics can assist with design of equipment, artificial limbs, and orthoses for safety.
A) True
B) False
What is the study of the function of human beings using the principles and methods of physics and engineering?
A) biomechanics
B) motor behavior
C) ergonomics
D) kinesiology
Injuries to tissues of the body can be caused by forces whose magnitudes are within the limits that the tissue can tolerate if they are applied repeatedly over a long period of time.
A) True
B) False
When an athlete is running across a field, _________ allows for the person to be propelled forward (the runner pushes down on the ground and the ground pushes the person in the opposite direction).
A) inertia
B) lift forces
C) acceleration
D) ground reaction forces
You are analyzing the performance technique of a swimmer to see what improvements can be made to help the performer swim faster using the movement analysis model. During one of the movement analysis steps, you remember that to move faster through the water, one must reduce the force of water resistance by making the body surfaces smooth. You then decide that, for the glide phase, you will have the performer keep her arms straight and close to her body to streamline her shape. Which analysis step did you carry out?
A) Consider influencing factors.
B) State performance goals.
C) Determine relevant biomechanical principles and movement techniques.
D) Observe, measure, assess, and evaluate.
What was the discipline of biomechanics called in the past?
A) motor learning
B) motor development
C) kinesiology
D) motor control
A football player is running his 40-yard dash for scouts. What type of analysis is the scout using?
A) qualitative analysis
B) ergonomics
C) quantitative analysis
D) pressure analysis
Which of the following is a type of mechanical loading that occurs inside the body?
A) gravity
B) compression
C) tension
D) both b and c
What does doing a leg curl produce?
A) muscle
B) force
C) torque
D) strength
The guiding principles and concepts of biomechanics come from which of the following subdisciplines?
A) biomechanical measurements, biological engineering, chemistry, and biology
B) mechanical physics, mechanical and biological engineering, and biology
C) mechanical physics, biology, biomechanical measurement, and content analysis
D) exercise physiology, mechanical physics, biology, and mechanical biology
What is the recommended amount of physical activity for improving cardiorespiratory endurance?
A) 20 to 60 min of activity at 70% to 90% of maximal heart rate, three to five days per week
B) 20 to 60 min of activity at 50% to 80% of maximal heart rate, one or two days per week
C) 10 to 15 min of activity at 80% to 90% of maximal heart rate, one or two days per week
D) 10 to 15 min of activity at 70% to 90% of maximal heart rate, three to five days per week
When body temperature rises during physical activity, which thermoregulatory response is stimulated?
A) sweating
B) all of these
C) vasoconstriction of skin blood vessels
D) shivering
What is (are) the goal(s) of exercise physiology?
A) all of the above
B) to understand human exercise
C) to improve physical fitness
D) to improve sport performance
Treadmills, cycles, and swimming flumes are used to estimate VO2max. What are these devices called?
A) exercise equipment
B) ergometers
C) tissot spirometers
D) cardiac rehab devices
During moderate and heavy exercise, heart rate increases linearly with an increase in oxygen uptake.
A) True
B) False
What is the ability to exercise at moderate to heavy intensities for prolonged periods?
A) endurance and rest period
B) fatigue or cardiac output
C) aerobic or cardiorespiratory endurance
D) running and then jogging
The Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health was issued in what year?
A) 1990
B) 1986
C) 1996
D) 2001
In addition to a degree in exercise physiology, a credential for a fitness professional is a certification from an organization such as ACSM.
A) True
B) False
_____ increases rapidly at the onset of physical activity and also increases as a function of exercise intensity.
A) Respiration
B) Perspiration
C) Ventilation
D) Dilation
Exercise physiology, biomechanics, sport history, and motor learning are examples of the subdisciplines of kinesiology.
A) True
B) False
What nutrient makes up 55% to 60% of the human body?
A) fat
B) water
C) carbohydrate
D) protein
The principle of overload means that the training intensity must be greater than normally experienced.
A) True
B) False
This kinesiologist was one of the first to contribute to the field of exercise physiology with his Nobel Prize-winning work on metabolism.
A) Thomas Cureton
B) D.B. Dill
C) Kenneth Cooper
D) A.V. Hill
An exercise physiologist is conducting research on the aerobic energy system. What might be the dependent variable used in her training program?
A) training intensity
B) amount of energy expended in a half-mile run
C) VO2max
D) number of days per week of exercise training
When an athlete is competing in a high-intensity physical activity, muscle glycogen is the main source of energy. Where does the body store it and where does it come from?
A) tendons; protein
B) muscles; lipid
C) skeletal muscles; protein
D) skeletal muscles; carbohydrate
What type of muscle fiber uses anaerobic energy systems almost exclusively?
A) all of these
B) fast oxidative glycolytic fibers
C) fast glycolytic fibers
D) slow-twitch fibers
Which is NOT a component of resistance training programs?
A) isomatics
B) isometrics
C) isokinetics
D) isotonics
The gold standard for determining body composition in humans is the skinfold thickness technique.
A) True
B) False
The risk of heat illness during physical activity increases as air temperature and humidity increase.
A) true
B) false
The ACSM recommends that adults take part in physical activity 20 to 60 min per day at 60% to 90% of maximal heart rate, seven days per week, to improve cardiorespiratory endurance.
A) True
B) False
The particular energy system that is used during physical activity that lasts more than 2 minutes is
A) aerobic
C) glycolytic
D) anaerobic
Where was the first exercise physiology laboratory in the United States established?
A) Carnegie Nutrition Lab
B) Harvard University
C) Springfield College
D) University of Illinois
A government publication that played an important part in describing the relationship between physical activity and health was called
A) Physical Activity and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General
B) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
C) Healthy People 1990
D) U.S. Kinesiology Guidebook
Exercise physiology is the study of
A) acute and chronic bodily responses to physical activity
B) biochemical changes in the body during high-intensity exercise
C) the lasting effects of long-term exercise on overall fitness
D) how to prescribe exercise for performance improvements
Some of the research methods in physiology of physical activity are
A) animal models, mental status, oxygen uptake, ergometers
B) animal models, lung intake, blood pressure, heart rate
C) ergometers, oxygen uptake, animal models
D) body mass index, skinfold, temperature, ergometers
People in the United States are commonly deficient in this nutrient, which can result in a decrease in fitness due to reduced oxygen-carrying capabilities.
A) vitamin B
B) iron
C) calcium
D) phosphorus
What is NOT a goal of exercise physiology?
A) to use exercise to understand human physiology
B) to use physiology to improve motor behavior
C) to use physiology to increase performance
D) to use physiology to understand health benefits of physical activity
Which of the following is NOT an energy system studied by exercise physiologists?
A) speed and endurance system
B) anaerobic glycolysis system
C) aerobic system
What type of exercise establishes tension in the muscle without changing length?
A) isotonic
B) isokinetic
C) isometric
D) hypertrophic
Which of the following statements best describes the physical activity patterns of most people?
A) Many tend to exercise too much and, as a result, suffer injuries.

B) They are much less physically active than is required to maintain good health.
C) They perform 30 min of vigorous physical activity at least three times each week.
D) They perform 20 min of vigorous physical activity at least three times each week.