Instrumental (Operant) Learning
A form of learning. In it, an individual changes its behavior because of the consequences (results) of the behavior. The person or animal learns its behavior has a consequence. That consequences may be. Reinforcement: a positive or rewarding event.
James and Willful Action
(Stein)
Question of free will. Figured out we imagine an action before the action.
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Stein
(James and Willful Action)
Magic writing, close eyes, dark, quiet room, let your hand move over a piece of paper with a pen and the mind will go black, sometimes people can produce legible "things" who say they weren't trying to produce anything.
Comparative Psychology
Refers to the scientific study of the behavior, and a mental processes of non-human animals, especially as these relate to the phylogenetic history, adaptive significance, and development of behavior.
Thorndike
Willful action in animals. Build series of mazes, in mazes he trained chickens to go down one path versus another. To determine willful action in chicken. Moved on to cats and wilful action. Built series of devices to put cats in a, "puzzle box" with how many times he puts the cat in the puzzle box. After every trial cats got faster until they couldn't get any faster. CSUCS; Action- Consequence.
Skinner
Trained pigeons to do a plethora of things trying to help war efforts. Strengthen behavior you want to train, but got to reinforce immediately when doing the behavior. Secondary reinforcer, something quicker such as toy. Pavlovian conditioning, prepare secondary reinforce with primary reinforce (Secondary ReinforcerPrimary Reinforcer) The toy noise equals dog yummy for roughly a dozen times, then once reinforced you can train it to do whatever you want. Establish target behavior, but don't reinforce initially. Reinforce small step in that direction. Keep raising requirement once prior requirement is met. Shape target behavior by little successions until the target behavior is obtained.
Comparing Pavlovian & Instrumental Learning?