True / False Questions

1. Performance management is an organization wide system whereby managers integrate the activities of goal setting, monitoring and evaluating, providing feedback and coaching, and rewarding employees on a continuous basis. True False

3. The performance improvement cycle involves goal setting, persistent effort, and rewards and positive reinforcement. True False

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5. The purpose of a learning goal is to accomplish a specific end-result. True False

7. Management by objectives is a management system that incorporates the principles of equity theory. True False

9. Goals should be stated in vague terms. True False

11. Goals should be impossible, to increase employee motivation. True False

13. Goals should have dates for completion. True False

15. Training is often required to help employees achieve his or her goals. True False

17. "We truly appreciate your hard work!" is an example of objective feedback. True False

19. Feedback serves a motivational role when it serves as a reward or promises a reward. True False

21. Personality characteristics, needs, and goals influence one's openness to feedback. True False

23. Research indicates that high self-monitors are more likely to seek feedback than low self-monitors. True False

25. Feedback with a negative sign always has a negative impact on motivation. True False

27. Managers who have proven untrustworthy and not credible have a hard time improving job performance through feedback. True False

29. Managers should remember to give plenty of feedback when the final results are accomplished, but not for the incremental improvement steps along the way. True False

31. Types of rewards, distribution criteria, and desired outcomes are all components in the general model of organizational reward systems. True False

33. Intrinsic rewards come from the environment. True False

35. Feeling competent after completing a difficult task is an example of an intrinsic reward. True False

37. If rewards are distributed based on cooperation and risk taking, an organization is using the "performance: results" reward distribution criterion. True False

39. A good reward system should attract, motivate, satisfy, and retain talented people. True False

41. Managers can accomplish leading for meaningfulness by helping employees identify their passions at work and creating an exciting organizational vision employees feel connected to. True False

47. Pay for performance refers to linking at least some portion of the paycheck directly to results or accomplishments. True False

49. The traditional piece rate plan is an example of a pay for performance plan. True False

51. Thorndike's law of effect states that behavior with favorable consequences tends to be repeated, while behavior with unfavorable consequences tends to disappear. True False

53. Skinner used the term "operant behavior" to describe unlearned reflexes or stimulus-response connections. True False

55. A corporate culture built on positive reinforcement can foster loyalty, hard work, and creativity. True False

57. A student who works hard on a project because of praise and recognition from the instructor is responding to positive reinforcement. True False

59. According to operant theory, extinction is the weakening of a behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced. True False

61. Every instance of a target behavior is reinforced when an intermittent reinforcement schedule is in effect. True False

63. Generally, variable ratio and variable interval schedules of reinforcement produce the strongest behavior that is most resistant to extinction. True False

65. Shaping is defined as the process of reinforcing closer and closer approximations to a target behavior. True False

Multiple Choice Questions

67. Performance management does not integrate the activities of ____. A. monitoring and evaluating B. providing feedback and coaching C. goal setting D. job knowledge and design E. rewards and positive reinforcement

69. Which of the following is not a desired outcome of the performance improvement cycle? A. Motivation B. Persistent effort C. Learning/personal growth D. Improved job performance E. Job satisfaction

71. A(n) _____ goal targets specific end result. A. procedural B. learning C. justice D. performance outcome E. equity

73. Management by objectives is a management system that incorporates ____. A. hedonism B. equity theory C. expectancy theory D. cognitive dissonance theory E. goal setting

75. The final step in establishing a goal-setting program is to ____. A. foster goal commitment B. set goals C. make sure the organization's strategy and the individual's goals are in alignment D. recognize that goal setting is often constrained by external factors E. provide employees with support and feedback

77. The first step in establishing a goal-setting program is to ____. A. promote goal commitment B. set goals C. make sure the organization's strategy and the individual's goals are in alignment D. recognize that goal setting is often constrained by external factors E. provide employees with support and feedback

79. Which of the following is an example of objective feedback? A. "You saved the company $2,000 by altering that delivery schedule." B. "You're doing a great job. Keep it up." C. "You've really been an asset to the company this year." D. "You're going to have to shape up and become more dependable." E. "Your work has been poor lately."

81. People tend to reject or downplay feedback if they perceive it to be ____. A. accurate B. negative C. based on an fair system D. based on reasonable standards E. from a credible source

83. Which of the following statements from feedback research is true? A. Computer-based performance feedback is more effective when it is received via the immediate supervisor than when it comes directly from the computer system. B. Passive participation in the feedback session leads to perceptions of greater feedback accuracy. C. Destructive criticism increases motivation levels.

D. The same feedback needs should be applied to all employees. E. The higher one rises in an organization the less likely one is to receive quality feedback.

85. _____ feedback occurs when individuals compare their own perceived performance with feedback from superiors, subordinates, and peers, and perhaps even customers. A. Task B. 360-degree C. Upward D. Instructional E. Motivational

87. Personal feelings of self-satisfaction and accomplishment are examples of _____ rewards. A. extrinsic B. social C. intrinsic D. material E. financial

89. Social rewards are a type of _____ reward. A. intrinsic B. psychic C. extrinsic D. material E. financial

91. The _____ criterion for reward distribution focuses on tangible outcomes such as individual, group, or organization performance, or quantity and quality of performance. A. performance: results B. performance: traits C. performance: actions and behaviors D. nonperformance considerations E. extraperformance considerations

93. Kelly is a successful attorney specializing in corporate law. While it has nothing to do with her field of employment, Kelly has always been interested in the history of religion. Using what little free time she has, she decided to take a course in comparative religion at the local university. It seems like it would be interesting and enjoyable. Kelly is not pursuing a degree in the subject, nor is she taking the class for a grade. What can you say about Kelly's motivation for taking the class?

A. She has a high need for power. B. She is intrinsically motivated. C. She has a high need for affiliation. D. She is extrinsically motivated. E. She sees the potential that a degree in religion studies can help her advance in her job.

95. A sense of meaningfulness, a sense of choice, a sense of competence, and a sense of progress represent the ____. A. types of intrinsic rewards responsible for intrinsic motivation B. types of extrinsic rewards responsible for extrinsic motivation C. four approaches to job design D. keys to a successful job enlargement program E. keys to a successful job design program using the principles of scientific management

97. One way managers can foster intrinsic motivation is by leading for choice. Leading for choice involves ____. A. inspiring employees and modeling desired behaviors B. empowering employees and delegating meaningful assignments and tasks C. supporting and coaching employees D. carefully selecting employees with the right attitude E. monitoring and rewarding employees

99. One way managers can foster intrinsic motivation is by leading for progress. Leading for progress involves ____. A. inspiring employees and modeling desired behaviors B. empowering employees and delegating meaningful assignments and tasks C. supporting and coaching employees D. carefully selecting employees with the right attitude E. monitoring and rewarding employees

101. Which of the following is not a reason that extrinsic rewards often fail to motivate? A. Rewards lack "appreciation effect" B. Too many one-size-fits-all rewards C. Extensive benefits become entitlements D. The emphasis is on monetary rewards E. Continued use of lay-offs and across-the board raises and cuts

103. The _____ incentive pay for performance plan was rated the most highly effective in a survey of 156 US executives. A. annual bonus B. skill-/knowledge based C. quality D. lump-sum merit E. team-based

105. In order to create an effective pay for performance plan, managers are advised to ____. A. pay cash bonuses in smaller amounts throughout the year B. encourage competition among employees C. foster one-way communication D. make the pay for plan an integral part of the organization's basic strategy E. base incentives on traditional performance appraisal evaluations

107. Shedding tears when peeling onions is an example of ____. A. operant behavior B. punishment C. a behavioral contingency D. respondent behavior E. negative reinforcement

109. _____ is the process of strengthening a behavior by contingently presenting something pleasing. A. Positive reinforcement B. Negative reinforcement C. Punishment D. Extinction E. Intermittent reinforcement

111. Two-year-old Timmy has discovered that if he yells and screams, his parents pay attention to him. Consequently, he is more likely to yell and scream. Timmy's yelling and screaming behavior is being ____. A. positively reinforced B. negatively reinforced C. punished D. extinguished E. shaped

113. A person who turns off his annoying alarm clock to make it stop ringing is responding to ____. A. positive reinforcement B. negative reinforcement C. punishment D. extinction E. response cost punishment

115. _____ is the process of weakening behavior through the contingent presentation of something displeasing. A. Positive reinforcement B. Negative reinforcement C. Punishment D. Extinction E. Shaping

117. Jack, a high school football coach, stops yelling at his players when they begin to run faster. Jack has _____ the running behavior. A. positively reinforced B. negatively reinforced C. punished D. extinguished E. shaped

119. Which reinforcement schedule leads to behavior that is most easily extinguished? A. Procedural. B. Fixed ratio. C. Variable ratio. D. Fixed interval. E. Variable interval.

121. A _____ schedule of reinforcement consists of providing reinforcement after a fluctuating time period has elapsed. A. continuous B. fixed ratio C. variable ratio D. fixed interval E. variable interval

123. A _____ schedule of reinforcement consists of providing reinforcement after a fluctuating number of responses have elapsed. A. continuous B. fixed ratio C. variable ratio D. fixed interval E. variable interval

125. Slot machines that pay off after a fluctuating number of lever pulls is an example of a _____ schedule of reinforcement. A. continuous B. fixed ratio C. variable ratio D. fixed interval E. variable interval

127. Random supervisory praise is an example of a _____ schedule of reinforcement. A. continuous B. fixed ratio C. variable ratio D. fixed interval E. variable interval

129. Which of the following is a recommended practice when shaping behavior? A. Withhold reinforcement until the complex target behavior is accomplished. B. Define behaviors as generally as possible. C. Make all rewards contingent on performance. D. Give moderate amounts of feedback. E. Use continuous reinforcement schedules to maintain behavior.