Verbal instructions
Traditionally vital, Fitts and Posner - leads to autonomy.
New research suggests it may degrade performance.
Implicit learning
Passive accumulation of task relevant information processed at an unconscious level, not easily verbalised.
Procedural memory.
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Explicit learning
Conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information.
Episodic, autobiographical.
Semantic, ability to recognise people. Working memory - may interfere with motor execution.
Episodic
Recollection of singular events.
Semantic
ALl explicit memory that isn't autobiographical. Trivia.
Reading, writing, maths.
Masters 2000
Reducing exp TR knowledge, learning by analogy.
Analogy had less Exp knowledge than control and exp group.
Analogy had better retention, identical kinematics.
Internal focus
Explicit.
Body parts and movements.
External focus
Implicit.
Apparatus/Implements.
Found to have greater economy of action.
Constrained action (hypothesis)
Internal focus - increase in task related info processing.
Conscious control of movement, stops automatic processing, decrement in performance.
Rehabilitation Explicit
Internal foci - Stroke patient focus on limb extension when reaching.
Rehabilitation Implicit
External foci - Parkinson's with hypokinesia focus on metronome.
Motor imagery
Dynamic mental representation of motor behaviour unaccompanied by real movements brought about by combinations of modalities.
MI modalities
Visual, Kinaesthetic, Cutaneous, Auditory, Olfactory.
Functional equivalence
Performance and MI.
Planning, preparing, simulating, observing - Motor representation, similar neurophysiological substrate.
Same as perception in function.
MI and ME
Execution time increases with difficulty in real and virtual tasks. Same time lengths.
MI and ME Neurophysiology
Covariation of HR and pulmonary ventilation with imagined effort.
Musc activity increases with respect to rest.
Taktek 08
MI and physical practice superior during transfer.
fMRI
Good spatial resolution, poor temporal. BOLD response, haemodynamic blood flow. Expensive. Limited ROM.
MEG
Poor spatial resolution, good temporal, magnetic field, better ROM.
EEG
Cheap, easy, susceptible to movement artifact, old methods of processing data question accuracy.
Action planning
Supp motor area.
Motor control
Primary motor cortex.
Imagery
Inferior parietal cortex.
Timing
Basal ganglia.
Error detection
Cerebellum.
30%
Activation in motor cortex during imagery, compared to actual.
Rossa 03
Golf imagery, wall vs rest vs imagery.
Decreased activation - increased skill level for supp motor area and cerebellum.
Agreement between golf swing imagery and brain activation areas.
MI and rehab
Could reduce time needed with therapist.