-claim that all we can be certain of is our sensations
-Introspection was essential for all sciences because it was the only method by which sensations can be analyzed (But one must not speculate about what exists beyond sensations nor attempt to determine their ultimate meaning)
- thought that careful analysis of sensations can determine how they are correlated, which leads to prediction and therefore better adaption to the environment.
-divide science into two major parts: the empirical (observational terms of science) and the theoretical (attempt to explain that which is observed)
-Began Koch's "age of Theory"
-paired with logical positivism
-was quickly accepted in psychological community because it was used to convert theoretical terms such as anxiety and intelligence into empirical events (such as: you are intelligent if you get 4 out 5 of these questions right) and strip them of their metaphysical connotations.
-in other words it ties theoretical terms to observable phenomena.
-made it so most psychologist agreed that unless a a concept can be operationally defined it is scientifically meaningless.
-dominated the period
-Believed the following:
1. if theory is used, it must be used in ways demanded by logical positivism
2. all theoretical terms must be operationally defined
3. nonhuman animals should be used as research subjects for two reasons:I. relevant variables are easier to control than they are for humans. II. perceptual and learning processes occurring in nonhuman animals can be generalized to humans
4. the learning process is of prime importance because it is the primary mechanism by which organisms adjust to changing environments.
-suspended from job as professor because he led a group of profs in a movement to resist signing a loyalty oath during McCarthyism.
-thought actions were infused with meaning:behavior was goal-directed-motivated and purposive.
-found that the pruposive aspects of behavior could be studied without sacrificing scientific objectivity. this was done by seeing purpose in the behavior itself and not inferring purpose from the behavior.
-agreed with hull and Thorndike that almost all matters in psyc could be explained by the behavior of rats
-To Tolman environmental experience gives rise to internal unobservable events that in turn cause behavior.
-obvious that environmental events influenced behavior, the problem was to understand why they did that.
-Independent variables (environmental)
Intervening variables (theoretical concepts)
Dependent variables (behavior)
-In early stages of the hypothesis the rat begins "Vicarious Trial and Error"; animal appears to pause at the choice point and engage in mental trial and error/pondering.
-when the hypothesis is confirmed the rat develops "expectancy":when I turn left there will be food.
-Through this process a "cognitive map" of the situation is formed/an awareness of all possibilities in a situation.
-this cognitive map intervenes between experience and behavior. Rather then just describing the rats behavior in explains it.
-believed in confirmation: the verification of a hypothesis, expectancy or belief
-learning is a constant occurrence
-motivation influences performance but not learning.
-IE your constantly learning no matter what your motivation, but if your a rat with a full stomach your not going to be motivated to use your learning to find the food.
-Terman thought this was because the rats came to see the absence of reinforcement.
-three groups of rats
-group 1: were reinforced with food each time they correctly got through a maze.
-group 2: subjects wandered through maze but were not reinforced if they reached goal box
-group 3: were treated like group 2 until the 11th day when they began receiving reinforcement in the goal box.
-hypothesis: that all rats were learning the maze as they wandered though it. if this is true then group 3 would perform as well as other groups from the 12th day on.
-experiment supported Hypothesis.
-thought about being a Unitarian minister
-employed logical positivism
-viewed people as machines that learn and think
Duelist (believed that mental events determined behavior)
-believed that a number of intervening internal conditions had to be taken into consideration in order to explain behavior. These conditions were cognitive events that intervened between environmental experience and behavior.
-Mechanist and materialist
-because of their willingness to speculate about internal causes of behavior both were methodological behaviorists.
-applied logical positivism in their theorizing.
-believed that a number of intervening internal conditions had to be taken into consideration in order to explain behavior. These intervening events were primarily physiological.
Hull's theory won over Tolman's. However both were to hampering to use outside the lab. It was to hard operationally define everything.
-a biological need creates a drive in the organism
- when that drive is diminished (need is met) that constitutes a reinforcement.
-important event that intervenes between a stimulus and a response
-an intervening variable as the number of reinforced pairings between an environmental situation (s) and a response (r).
-believed all learning phenomena could be explained by using only one of Aristotle's laws of association-- the law of contiguity.
-law of contiguity
-what you do last in a situation is what you will tend to do if the situation recurs
-"what is being noticed becomes a signal for what is being done"
-what made guthrie's theory of learning unique was his regection of the law of frequency, saying instead that "a stimulus pattern gains its full associative strength on the occasion of its first pairing with a response"
-Movement: a specific response made to a specific configuration of stimuli
-Acts: a response made to varying stimulus configurations.
IE typing the letter "a" on a specific keyboard under specific stimulus conditions (lighting) is an movement.
Typing the letter "a" on different keyboard in different lighting is an act.
-because learning an act involves learning a specific response under varying conditions that practice improves performance.
-"cats in a puzzle box" Gunthrie and Horton
*when a cat is in a box and must move a pole to get out how does the cat remember how to get out?
*Guthrie says that because moving the pole is the last thing the cat does under the pre-reinforcement conditions, it is that response the cay will make when next placed into a box.
- forgetting occurs when an old ST association is displaced by a new one.
-all forgetting involves new learning
-IE A child who drops out in 7th grade will always remember his last year, a child who goes on to college will have associations of school/classroom overlaid on top of that experience and be vague about 7th grade.
-How to break habits: observe the stimuli that elicit the undesirable act and perform another act in the presence of those stimuli. he new desirable act will be elicited by those stimuli instead of the old, undesirable act.
-the last act performed in the presence of the maintaining stimuli will tend to be performed when those stimuli refer.
-such acts are referred to as intentions because they appear to have as their goal the removal of maintaining stimuli.
-it was in accordance with logical positivism because it insisted that all its basic terms be operationally defined.
-high degree of self-discipline/every minute except 15 min scheduled a day.
-approach to research that involves studying the systematic relationship between behavioral and environmental events.
-focuses on the relationship between reinforcement contingencies and response rate or response probability.
-mental events are nothing but neurophysiological events to which we have put labels
-reinforcement can be identified only through its effects on behavior, which is different for each organism.
-no drive reduction
-the reinforcement contingencies of the environment determines which behaviors are strengthened and which are not. -Darwinian approach to analysis of behavior
-change the reinforcement contingencies, and you change behavior.
- Why then is punishment used? Because it reinforces the punisher.
-wrote novel walden two about how his principles could be used in designing a model society.
-In education skinner developed a teaching technique called "programmed learning". in which students are presented with info in small steps/ and with technology
-own version of behavior therapy that assumes that people learn abnormal behavior in the same way that they learn normal behavior therefore treatment is a matter of removing the reinforcers that are maintaining the undesirable behavior.
However logical positivism ultimately failed because of it's strict operationalism, and that