______ were/was essential to the culture, religion, and sustenance of the Plains Indians.
Bison
In 1851, the government negotiated a new policy with the Plains tribes based on the divide-and-conquer strategy. This was known as the "______" policy.
Concentration Policy
Which of the following was the law passed by Congress in 1882 that prohibited Chinese immigration to the United States? It was overturned in 1943.
Chinese Exclusion Act
The Homestead Act of 1862
failed to fill the West weight 160-acres family farms because most landless Americans were simply too poor to become farmers.
Barb wire was invented by
Joseph F. Glidden.
Probably the most famous of all the precious metal strikes in the West, the site of the Comstock Lode and the Big Bonanza, was in
Virginia City, Nevada.
Cattle herds were driven across the unsettled grassland of the ______ on their way to the railroad at Abilene, Kansas.
Chisholm Trail
Barb wire destroyed the open range cattle industry because it
prevented the free movement of cattle.
The two railroads joined in 1869 to form the first transcontinental railroad were the
Central Pacific and the Union Pacific.
In 1887, Congress passed the Dawes Severalty Act, which was tended to
persuade Indians to abandon their traditional tribal.
Henry George, Edward Bellamy, and Henry Demarest Lloyd were all late-nineteenth-century
radical reformers.
In 1890, Congress tried to restore competition by outlawing the restraint of interstate trade by corporate monopolies with the ______ Act.
Sherman Antitrust
Which of the following was a belief that Charles Darwin's theory of the evolution of species also applied to social and economic institutions and practices? It asserted that the "fittest" enterprises or individuals prevailed, while those that were defective naturally faded away; society thus progressed most surely when competition was unrestricted by government.
Social Darwinism
Which of the following was a farmers' organization founded in 1867 by Oliver H. Kelley? It initially provided social and cultural benefits but then supported legislation, known as the Granger laws, providing for railroad regulation.
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
Known as the "Wizard of Menlo Park," the inventor of the phonograph and the electric light bulb was
Thomas A. Edison.
Andrew Carnegie dominated the ______ industry.
steel
By the middle of the 1880s, ______ monopolized the oil industry in the United States.
John D. Rockefeller
Which of the following interests of Alexander Graham Bell's led to the invention of the telephone?
Deaf education
The leader of the American Railway Union in its dramatic 1894 strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company was
Eugene Debs.
The ______ process directed a stream of air into a mass of molten iron, burning off impurities, and greatly lowered the price of steel.
Bessemer
In the decades following the Civil War, which area of the country became known as the "breadbasket" of America?
plains agriculture. By 1889 Minnesota
topped the nation in wheat production, and ten years later four of the five leading wheat states lay west of the Mississippi.
One result of the gold and silver rushes of the late nineteenth century was
the financial position of the United States during and after the Civil War. an improved financial position for America in world trade.
The discovery that cattle could feed on the prairie grasses of the public domain of the northern plains led to the development of
Open-Range Ranching (required actual ownership of no more than a few acres along some watercourse)
The Pacific Railway Act of 1862 set the pattern for government land grants by giving the builders of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads
five square miles of public land on each side of their right-of-way for each mile of track laid.
Partly as a result of the Ghost Dance movement, the army killed some 150 Teton Sioux at ________ in 1890.
Wounded Knee, South Dakota
President Cleveland intervened in the Pullman strike on the pretext that
the soldiers were needed to ensure the movement of the mails.
In the late nineteenth century "Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, Thomas A. Scott, and Jay Gould organized
and constructed the integrated railroad systems. Complex, transcontinental railroad lines.
The first union to welcome blacks, women, and immigrants into its ranks was the
Knights of Labor
When J. P. Morgan assembled United States Steel, he
was the "world's first billion-dollar corporation."
The new nativism of the late nineteenth century was exemplified by the
American Protective Association.
In Thorstein Veblen's Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) he
theorized that middle-class consumption was done mainly for superficial purposes.
In 1891, James Naismith invented the game of
basketball.
Walter Camp played a major role in establishing
football as a major sport.
Urban transportation was revolutionized and urban development was redirected in the 1880s by
electric trolleys.
Which of the following terms refers to a fear or hatred of immigrants, ethnic minorities, or alien political movements?
Nativism
Louis H. Sullivan was closely associated with
the development of the skyscraper.
The community centers started by idealistic young people to guide and help the urban poor were
settlement houses.
The founder of Chicago's Hull House was
Jane Addams.
A residential apartment building, common in New York in the late 1800s that was built on a tiny lot without consideration of proper lighting and ventilation was known as a
tenement.
According to German educator Johann Friedrich Herbart, good teaching called for
psychological insight and imagination.
The effects of Darwinism in America were apparent in the philosophy of ______ which stated that all truths are constantly evolving and can be judged only by their concrete results.
pragmatism
The real name of the first great American realist, Mark Twain, was
Samuel L. Clemens.
The emphasis of Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. on evolutionary change had a profound impact upon twentieth-century
jurisprudence.
The first newspaper editor to reach a truly massive audience without abandoning his basic integrity was
Joseph Pulitzer.
The most influential philosopher of his times and the main exponent of pragmatism was
William James.
American painters of the late nineteenth century such as Winslow Homer and Thomas Eakins painted in a style called
realism.
The late-nineteenth-century theory of the Teutonic origins of democracy
argued that the roots of democracy and the rule of law were found in the ancient tribes of northern Europe.
In 1869, Harvard introduced the ______ system and took the lead in reforming higher education in the Gilded Age.
elective
A form of education which illustrated the popular desire for new information in the late nineteenth century was the
Chautauqua movement.
Characters asked themselves, "What would Jesus do?" in Charles M. Sheldon's best-selling Social Gospel novel,
In His Steps.
One of the causes which eventually led to restrictions on immigration was the
social Darwinists' fears that immigrants would undermine American "racial purity."
The response of American intellectuals such as Walt Whitman and Henry Adams to the new industrial civilization was to
denounce it as leading to the worship of money and material success.
Beginning in the 1880s, the source of American immigration shifted to new immigrants from
southern and eastern Europe.
Social Gospelers believed
the church should focus on improving the lives of the poor, ending child labor, and reguating he power of big corporations.
The new literary style of the 1870s and 1880s which often examined social problems such as slum conditions and portrayed people of every social class was
realism.
The educator John Dewey insisted that
education was the fundamental method of social progress.
In The Higher Learning in America, Thorstein Veblen
criticized the intrusion of business into uninersities.
One of the first book to treat sex forthrightly was
Sister Carrie.
In its treaties with Native Americans, the American government generally
showed little interest in honoring them.
By the end of the nineteenth century, U.S. industrial capacity
dwarfed both Great Britain's and Germany's.
As a result of the ______, membership in the Knights of Labor declined quickly because the public associated unions with violence and radicalism.
Haymarket Square riot
The federal regulatory board, established in 1887 by Congress to supervise the affairs of railroads, investigate complaints, and issue "cease and desist" orders against railroads acting illegally, was the
Interstate Commerce Commission.
In his frontier thesis, Frederick Jackson Turner argued that
the frontier gave Americans their unique character.
Industrialist Andrew Carnegie donated millions of dollars to help
build public libraries.
In the late nineteenth century, Johns Hopkins, Jonas Clark, and John D. Rockefeller were all
wealthy founders of new universities.
In 1870, most American colleges were
small and intellectually stagnant with few professors of any intellectual repute.
Vassar College holds the distinction of
being the first college for women.
Many Americans believed that ______ were responsible for cholera epidemics.
immigrants
Middle-class families in the late nineteenth century became
smaller because women married later in life and practiced abstinence.

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