I. Introduction

The K-12 education system is the public education system that most people are familiar with today. Comprised of 13 grades, kindergarten through 12th, it refers to the public school system in all of the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, and parts of Europe as well. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact history of education, as it has been occurring in some form for centuries in all parts of the world. The K-12 Program has been initiated by the Aquino administration where students will have to undergo a new system of education.

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The Enhanced K+12 Basic Education Program is a DepEd program that will improve the standard of education and give more opportunities for graduating students. The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.

Moreover, the program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad. Now this is for the schools that don’t offer 7th grade in Elementary.

Last school year 2012, Philippine education officially implemented the K-12 curriculum. Everyone knows the country (in public schools preferably) is drastically left behind in terms of curriculum adjustments. Grade 1 entrants in SY 2012–2013 are the first batch to fully undergo the program, and current 1st year Junior High School students (or Grade 7) are the first to undergo the enhanced secondary education program.

The implementation of the K- 12 education plan in the Philippine Basic Education Curriculum is the key to our nation’s development. Though the government will face many problems in the long run of the implementation of the program, there really is a need to implement it because the enhancement of the quality of our education is very urgent and critical.

II. Collection & Analysis of Data a) Social and Cultural Forces A 12-year program is found to be the adequate period for learning under basic education. It is also a standard for recognition of students and/or professionals abroad (i.e. the Bologna Process for the European Union and the Washington Accord for the United States). The Philippines is the last country in Asia and one of only three countries (Angola and Djibouti) worldwide with a 10-year pre-university cycle.

The graduates of this program will be more prepared to enter the labor force. High school graduates are younger than 18 years old and lack basic competencies and maturity. They cannot legally enter into contracts and are not emotionally mature for entrepreneurship/employment. The program aims to uplift the quality of education in the Philippines in order for graduates to be easily employed. The program also aims to meet the standards required for professionals who would want to work abroad.

Learning Resources for Teachers & Students for Grds. 2 & 8 being developed

b) Technological Forces DepEd shall engage in partnerships with the colleges, universities, and Technical-Vocational Institutions (TVI) to use their existing facilities and teaching staffs. The current curriculum has been enhanced and has been given more focus to allow mastery of learning. With the continuous increase of the DepEd budget, more teachers are being hired to fill all necessary gaps in schools.

To aid transition, hiring of (1) graduates of Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Engineering, and other specialists in subjects with a shortage of qualified Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) applicants, (2) graduates of Technical-Vocational courses, (3) Higher Education Institution faculty, and (4) Practitioners will be allowed. Students may also be eligible for NC I and NC II through Junior High School and Senior High School, respectively.

Teachers will be given sufficient in-service training on content and pedagogy to implement this program. Current DepEd teachers shall be re-trained to meet the content and performance standards of the enhanced K to 12 curriculums. The pre-service education for aspiring teachers will also be modified to conform to the requirements of the program. DepEd, in coordination with CHED shall ensure that the Teacher Education curriculum offered in Teacher Education Institutions will meet the necessary quality standards for new teachers. c) Economic & Environment Forces

Studies in the UK, India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall impact on society. According to the DepEd (2010), studies in the country have reflected that an additional year of school increases the earnings by 7.5% and that improvements in the quality of education will enable the GDP grow by 2-2.2%. Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education is offered for free in public schools. There are additional indirect costs but government agencies are collaborating to provide programs that will enable everyone access to quality education, especially to those with lesser means.

Proposals such as the expansion of the Education Service Contracting (ESC) scheme under the Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education (GASTPE) and other cost-sharing arrangements are being developed by DepED.

d) Political and Legal Forces According to the Senate Bill No. 3286 or the Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2012, SEC. 5, Curriculum Development - The DepEd, in coordination with the Commission on Higher Education (CHED), the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA), and other relevant stakeholders shall formulate the design and details of (he enhanced basic education curriculum consistent with Section 2 of this Act, taking into consideration the decongestion of the existing curriculum.

Paramount consideration shall be given to ensure college and work readiness and to avoid remedial and duplication of basic education subjects at the post-secondary level. To achieve an effective enhanced basic education curriculum, DepEd shall undertake consultations with other national government agencies and other stakeholders including, but not limited to, the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE), Professional Regulation Commission (PRC), private and public schools associations, national student organizations, national teacher organizations, parents-teachers associations, and the chambers of commerce and/or industry associations on matters affecting the concerned stakeholders. SEC.

7. Teacher Education and Training. - To ensure that the enhanced basic education program meets the demand for quality teachers and school leaders, the DepEd and CI'IED, in collaboration with relevant partners in government, academe, industry, and non-governmental organizations, shall conduct teacher education and training programs, as specified:

a) In-service Training on Content and Pedagogy - Current DepEd teachers shall be re-trained to meet the content and performance standards of the new K -12 curriculum. The DepEd shall ensure that private education institutions shall be given the opportunity to avail of such training;

b) Training of New Teachers - New graduates of the current Teacher Education curriculum shall undergo additional training, upon hiring, to upgrade their skills to the content standards of the new curriculum. Furthermore, CHED, in coordination with DepEd and relevant stakeholders, shall ensure that the Teacher Education curriculum offered in these TEls will meet the necessary quality standards for new teachers.

c) Training of School Leadership Superintendents, Principals, Area Coordinators, and other instructional school leaders shall undergo workshops and training to enhance their skills on their academic, administrative, and community leaders. Henceforth, such professional development programs as those stated above shall be initiated and conducted regularly throughout the school year to ensure constant upgrading of teacher skills. The curriculum will enable students to acquire Certificates of Competency (COCs) and National Certifications (NCs).

This will be in accordance with TESDA Training Regulations. This will allow graduates to have middle-level skills and will over them better opportunities to be gainfully employed or become entrepreneurs. There will be a school–industry partnership for technical–vocational courses to allow students to gain work experience while studying and over the opportunity to be absorbed by the companies.