Hair coloring or lightening is the practice of changing the color of hair. During lightening, hair goes through various stages until it reaches the ideal orange/gold color. Lightening time varies, depending on natural hair color. The darker the hair, the longer the lightening time needed. Medium brown hair on average takes somewhere around 40 minutes to lighten. Dark brown hair takes somewhere around fifty minutes to lighten. Darkest brown hair takes around sixty minutes to lighten. And black hair takes around sixty minutes to lighten.

That is just on average and can vary a bit depending on the person s hair. Common reasons for coloring or lightening are to cover gray hair, to change to a color to be regarded as more fashionable or desirable, and to restore the original hair color after it has been discolored by hairdressing processes or sun bleaching. Hair coloring is one of the potential and lucrative ways in which a salon can make money. Most of the clients of a hair salon at some point and time will want to enhance or change their hair color.

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Hair coloring is both a science and an art and for a hair stylist to become or be considered as an expert, they should be able to perform the following services of enhancing the hair, blending or covering gray, lightening natural hair color, depositing color on previously colored hair, depositing color on hair that has been lightened and creating dimensional color. Hair color was traditionally applied to the hair as one overall color. The modern trend is to use several colors to produce streaks or gradations, either on top of the natural color or on top of a single base color.

These are referred to as: •Highlighting, where sections of hair are treated with lighteners, usually to create blond streaks. •Low lighting, where sections of hair are treated with darker hair color. These can be applied by the following methods: •Foiling, where pieces of foil or plastic film are used to separate off the hair to be colored; especially when applying more than one color. •Cap, when a plastic cap is placed tight on the head and strands are pulled through with a hook.

Balayage, where hair color is painted directly onto sections of the hair with no foils used to keep the color contained. All application techniques can be used with any type of color. For highlights, the hair will usually have to be bleached before coloring. Bleaching is a chemical process for removal of some or all natural or synthetic color from hair. Hydrogen peroxide and ammonium hydroxide are common bleachants. Any color treatment to change to a lighter color requires bleaching.

Subsequent to bleaching, a light colored permanent or semi permanent dye or toner may be applied. Bleaching has the side effect of raising the cuticle, making the hair more porous. Semi-permanent hair dye has smaller molecules than temporary dyes, and is therefore able to partially penetrate the hair shaft. For this reason, the color will survive repeated washing, typically 4–5 shampoos or a few weeks. Semi-permanents contain no, or very low levels of developer, peroxide or ammonia, and are therefore safer for damaged or fragile hair.

However, semi-permanents may still contain the toxic compound phenylenediamine or other such ingredients. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency reported that in rats and mice chronically exposed to PPD in their diet, it simply depressed body weights, and no other clinical signs of toxicity were observed in several studies. The final color of each strand of hair will depend on its original color and porosity, so there will be subtle variations in shade across the whole head. This gives a more natural result than the solid, all over color of a permanent dye.

However, it also means that gray or white hairs will not dye to the same shade as the rest of the hair. If there are only a few grey/white hairs, the effect will usually be enough for them to blend in, but as the gray spreads, there will come a point where it will not be disguised as well. In this case, the move to permanent color can sometimes be delayed by using the semi-permanent as a base and adding highlights.

Semi-permanent color cannot lighten the hair. Demi-permanent hair color is permanent hair color that contains an alkaline gent other than ammonia (e. g. , ethanolamine, sodium carbonate) and, while always employed with a developer, the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in that developer may be lower than used with a permanent hair color. Since the alkaline agents employed in demi-permanent colors are less effective in removing the natural pigment of hair than ammonia these products provide no lightening of hair's color during dying. As the result, they cannot color hair to a lighter shade than it was before dyeing and are less damaging to hair than their permanent counterpart.

Demi-permanents are much more effective at covering gray hair than semi-permanents, but less so than permanents. Demi-permanents have several advantages as compared with permanent color. Because there is essentially no lifting (i. e. , removal) of natural hair color, the final color is less uniform/homogeneous than a permanent and therefore more natural looking; they are gentler on hair and therefore safer, especially for damaged hair; and they wash out over time (typically 20 to 28 shampoos), so root re-growth is less noticeable and if a change of color is desired, it is easier to achieve.

Demi-permanent hair colors are, in essence, permanent color and the darker shades in particular may persist longer than indicated on the packet. Temporary hair color is available in various forms including rinses, shampoos, gels, sprays, and foams. Temporary hair color is typically brighter and more vibrant than semi-permanent and permanent hair color. It is most often used to color hair for special occasions such as costume parties and Halloween. The pigment molecules in temporary hair color are large and cannot penetrate the cuticle layer.

The color particles remain adsorbed (closely adherent) to the hair shaft and are easily removed with a single shampooing. Temporary hair color can persist on hair that is excessively dry or damaged in a way that allows for migration of the pigment to the interior of the hair shaft. It lasts for about a few hours to 1 day. The dying of hair is an ancient art. In ancient times, the dyes were obtained from plants. Some of the most well known are henna (Lawsonia inermis), indigo, Cassia obovata, senna, turmeric and amla.

Others include katam, black walnut hulls, red ochre and leeks. The development of synthetic dyes for hair is traced to the 1860s discovery of the reactivity of PPD with air. Hair dying is now a multibillion dollar industry that involves the use of both plant-derived and synthetic dyes. So lets get started, first put on the gloves and draped a towel over the clients shoulders to protect the clothing. Then you need to make sure the hair is dry, not shampooed and detangled. Then you need to mix the ingredients, and shake them up.

You then start to pour the mixture on to one’s hair and made sure to distribute it evenly and not miss any parts. The mixture should be visible on all parts of his hair. You then leave the mixture on the hair for about thirty to forty minutes. After the time is up you rinse the hair and condition it. If the hair does not reach the desired color, just repeat the process. Dying or curling your hair is a very easy way to get a new look, by changing the chemical composition of your hair and bye chemically changing the appearance of your hair. I recommend it. You look fabulous.