Calayan Educational Foundation Inc. Maharlika Highway, Red-V, Lucena City College of Nursing ------------------------------------------------- Sugay/Edades/Suayan/Ramirez/Catausan: REPORTERS Objectives: 1. To identify the main characteristic of grounded theory. 2. ------------------------------------------------- To critically evaluate the methodology of grounded theory. Grounded Theory Grounded theory was developed in 1960’s by two sociologist, (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) one of whom (Strauss) had strong theoretical training in symbolic interaction.
One of their earliest studies was grounded theory on dying in hospitals in which the prime controllable variable was characterized as “awareness context”. Definition of Grounded theory Glaser and Strauss(1967) • GT is the discovery of theory from data systematically obtained from social research. • The strategy used in this discovery process is method of constant comparative analysis. • The purpose of GT is to explain the data (concepts) (Strauss and Corbin 1990) GT is inductively derived from the study of the phenomenon it represents (instead of starting out with a theory and proving it) • Data, analysis and theory are constantly interacting (having a “dialogue” with each other not isolated but are parts of a conversation) • The purpose of using GT method is to develop a theory from the data being examined (theory fits what is seen in the data) Grounded theory is a type of qualitative research methodology that allows theory/theories to emerge from the data that is collected. Grounded theory research follows a systematic yet flexible process to collect data, code the ata, make connections and see what theory/theories are generated or are built from the data. “A theory is a set of concepts that are integrated through a series of relational statements. (Hage, 1972). ” Grounded theory has become an important research method for the study of nursing phenomena and has contributed to the development of many middle range theories relevant to nurses. Grounded theory is generally inductive method that is not inextricably linked to a particular theoretical perspective or type of data (Glaser,2005). Conceptualization is essential for grounded theory (Glaser,2003).
Grounded theory researchers generate emergent conceptual categories and their properties and integrate them into substantive theory grounded in the data. Alternative views of grounded theory In 1990, Strauss and Corbin published what was become a controversial book, Basic of Qualitative Research: Grounded theory procedures and Techniques. Strauss and Corbin stated that the purpose of the book was to provide beginning grounded theory researchers with basic knowledge and procedures involved in building theory at the substantive level.
Glaser, however, disagreed with some of the procedures advocated by Strauss and Corbin. Glaser published a rebuttal in 1992, Emergence Versus Forcing: Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. Glaser believed that Strauss and Corbin developed a method that is not grounded theory but rather what he calls “full conceptual description. ” According to Glaser, the purpose of grounded theory is to generate concepts and theories about their relationship that explain, account for, and interpret variation in behavior in the substantive area under study. types of Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967) 1. Substantive theory – is grounded in data on the specific substantive area Example: Beck, (2007) modified her 1993 grounded theory study, Teering on the Edge, which was a substantive theory of postpartum depression. Since Beck’s original study had been conducted, 10 qualitative study of postpartum depression in woman from other cultures had been published. The results from those 10 transcultural studies were compared with the findings from the original grounded theory.
Maximizing differences among comparative groups is powerful method for enhancing the generation of theoretical properties and extending the theory 2. Formal grounded theory – involves developing a higher, more abstract level of theory from a compilation of substantive grounded theory studies regarding a particular phenomenon. Example: Kearney and O’Sullivan (2003) used a formal grounded theory approach to synthesize the findings of 14 studies, which the goal of identifying common elements of individual’s effort to change a variety of unhealthy behaviors. The concept of”identity shift” was discovered as a core process.
Common Features of Grounded Theory * GT does not aim truth, but conceptualize what is going on by using empirical data. * No hypotheses formulation in advance, they are formed during analysis based on conceptual ideas * It is about mainly “participants” concern and how they deal with it. * In GT, the unit of analysis are incidents. * Results of GT, are in form of probability statements about the relationships between concepts developed from empirical data. * Validity of GT is measured in: FIT, RELEVANCE, WORKABILITY and MODIFIABILITY. When should GT be used? According to Glaser: Grounded Theory becomes an answer where other methodologies did not work well enough, especially in the sensitive dependent variable fields within the health science and business and management. " According to Stern: “The strongest case for the use of grounded theory is in investigations of relatively uncharted water, or to gain a fresh perspective in a familiar situation. " According to Strauss and Corbin: "If someone wanted to know whether one drug is more effective than another, then a double blind clinical trial would be more appropriate than grounded theory study.
However, if someone wanted to know what it was like to be a participant in a drug study, then he or she might sensibly engage in a grounded theory project or some other type of qualitative study. " Uses of Grounded Theory * Exploration of an ecology * Development of a theory that could guide prediction, intervention and explanation * Systematic analysis of qualitative data * Codification of patterns and ideas 4 Stages of Analysis 1. Codes – Identifying anchors that allow the key points of the data to be gathered 2. Concepts – collection of codes of similar content that allows the data to be grouped 3.
Categories – broad group of similar concepts that are used to generate theory 4. Theory – a collection of explanation that explain the subject of the research. Theoretical Sensitivity The ability to understand what is going on with data; what is relevant and what is not; having insight; found in the researcher; it is conceptual. Takes place before analysis of data and during the analysis of data. Sources of Theoretical Sensitivity: • Professional experience • Personal experience of an event • Analysis process itself: become sensitive to concepts, meanings and relationships • Literature
Process of Grounded Theory/Research Method 1. Decide if grounded theory design best address the research problem. 2. Identify a process to study. Process approach is the sequence of steps taken through activities or interaction with participants or events which relate to the study. 3. Seek approval and access. 4. Conduct theoretical sampling. Data may be collected by observing and recording interactions, examining written documentation and literature or obtaining perspective from various people involved in the social interaction.
The method used to reach a grounded theory is termed CONSTANT COMPARATIVE METHOD. During data collection, data are usually analyzed concurrently. Comparing and connecting categories with in the data with other categories allowing to be grounded in the data. The researcher searches for a core variable, which will serve as the foundation for theory generation. The core variable has some of the following characteristics: recurs frequently, links various data, has an explanatory function, become more detailed and permits maximum variation. . Code the data. Sequential series of stages (Stauss and Corbin) a. Open coding – procedure for developing categories of information b. Axial coding – a procedure for interconnecting the categories c. Selective coding – a procedure for building a story that connects the categories producing a discursive set of theoretical propositions. 6. Develop a theory 7. Write a grounded theory report. References: Norwood, Research Strategies for Advanced Practice Nurses (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Health, 2000) 382-385.
Streubert, Carpenter, Qualitative Research in Nursing: Advancing the Humanistic Imperative (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, 1999) 117-143. Polit, Beck, Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice (Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins, 2008) 229 – 231. Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity: Advances in the methodology of grounded theory. Mill Valley: CA: Sociology Press http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Grounded_theory (accessed September 3, 2011) http://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m0FSL/is_6_73/ai_75562157/ (accessed September 3, 2011)