As we all know, globalism has become one of the most discussed issues of the contemporary world recently. Although some authorities described globalism as a dangerous way for world to follow, it is also described as something good for all the world by some other authorities, and there is no doubt that this debate is going to last for a long while, however it is kind of hard to figure out how it is going to end.
In this point, according to my researches and my opinions, I believe globalization is an undisputable and inevitable fact that nobody can change but the time itself and it is caused by some ongoing reasons mostly related with technological improvements and international interactions, however it can be discussed whether it is beneficial or something to be discouraged depending on the aspects. Since globalization as a phenomena covers extensive range of subtitles such as globalization in politics, economic, science, public and international relationships, culture etc.
It has been very hard to say that it is a good thing for every aspects. There are so many criteria and aspects to look at, and this brings us so many questions to think about it, for instance should we look globalization as an economical argument? if so, who gets the benefit? Or which countries are affected in a good way? Is there any country suffering from the quick spread of globalization? Shortly all these criteria and questions make this topic negotiable. In this set of materials, first thing to start is to find an answer for the question “Why does globalization occur?”
To understand the idea, it is needed to look at the very beginning of the globalization, as this subject is a multi subtitled phenomena, the definition of globalization history should be varied too, depending on the head piece. Since each title has different definitions and descriptions we need to analyze the reasons for economical globalization and cultural globalization differently. It is a noticeable fact that globalization is not a new thing spreading up on the world, it has been said that it existed in the past too.
According to Nayan Chanda who is publications director of Yale Center for the Study of Globalization and also the writer of “Brother Enemy; War after the war”, globalization has first seen when the communities interacted with each other in the history, 8000 year before than today, and interaction was mostly based on cultural components. Needless to say it existed in the past but the critical point was how and in what forms did it last and how it survived until today. According to International Economic Issues Magazine (Uluslar Aras? Ekonomik Sorunlar) Globalization has evolved in three steps and became its current structure, first step was between the beginning of 19th century and 1914, in this part globalization was mostly on economical and the financial concept, most of the states have abolished the majority of the restrictions and obligations about international trade, the volume of money on international trade was getting better.
However in the second step which is between 1914 and 1950, it got into an opposite situation, most of the states went down financially and cultural interaction has appeared with nationalist movements.
After 1950 globalism got a huge acceleration especially after 1980, international trade volume reached the highest rate ever that never reached before in the past, global production processes has evolved. Moreover technological improvements became a matter.  As it is explained in most of the resources I believe that the reason for globalization existence is interaction itself, people want to reach more and more people from all over the world sometimes for economical reasons and sometimes for other specific intellectual reasons, and all these interactions bring the resemblance and resemblance becomes the main source of globalism.
If we need to give specific examples other than the theoretical approaches, I would point out the trends on the world. People see the things in the world and if they like it they adopt and accept those things and if they don’t they just leave it. For instance, when we think that why is the hamburger is so popular food all around the world, it is because people observe and taste the hamburger from different places and they all feel the same as a ‘delicious food’. Those observations and acceptance generates the globalization in glance.
Therefore we can conclude that since people will never stop keep on touch and using their properties and ideas, globalization will always occur as it has done in the past. On the other hand, among all the definitions and evolution processes of globalism there is another debate topic we have which is about figuring out whether is something good or bad. There are so many different ideas and remarks that there are more than 8 million web pages just on google if you type ‘globalization is good or bad’.
Of course there is no doubt on that there is both positive and negative sides of globalization, but the thing is figuring out all the aspects and deciding which side has more material. When we look at the economical aspect, there are varied arguments and ideas going in the published and visual media. Some economists believe that it has more positive effects than the negative effects, for instance, in Professor Michael D. Intriligator’s number 33 published book, it is clearly written that “Globalization has led to growing competition on a global basis.
While some fear competition, there are many beneficial effects of competition that can increase production or efficiency. Competition and the widening of markets can lead to specialization and the division of labor”. Just like in the quotation, most of the authorities agreed that the free trade, and competition in the business gives people a chance to use better products with competition resulted price. Another interesting approach is written by Canadian writer and engineer Craig Nash as “Forces businesses to compete on a global scale.
This allows the market place to really work and gives consumers a better advantage. No long will businesses be able to corner markets because politicians protect them. They’ll now to compete with foreign businesses that may or may not be able to do business more efficiently. ” The remarkable fact in here for me is that it is actually implied that the politicians and monopolized business scale would not be better than a competitive sector, for this aspect I believe that globalism induces the competitions among the companies, and this is a good thing for people to be encouraged.
Nonetheless there is another common view about globalism on the economy which is on negative side that this movement tends to create a gap between poor economies – communities and rich countries – communities. This common idea is clearly supported in “Economics and Organization” series in vol 6 that “Globalization has touched millions of lives, leaving its mark on every economy. Time will show if the process which leads to too great acceleration, too great inequalities, increasing gap between the unemployed and the poor on one side and those who, under the mask of globalization, collect the fruits of spreading to socially exhausted markets.
We can only agree that this is a truly negative process for the human being but useful for the leading economy of the West. ” In fact, there is another well known idea about use of globalization by Joseph Stiglitz who is Nobel awarded writer, his idea basically explains that the globalism is good for the economy of all world even for poor countries but the important thing is how you use it, he believes that it has already misused by some rich countries.
On the other hand, globalism should not only be considered as an economical subject, it also should be analyzed as for other concepts too, because globalism effects culture, social life, politics and even nature too. It is same for this subjects too, we can never make a generalization as to believe it completely true of false, it will always have on both side effects. For example, as we all know globalization has some effects on cultural and social life, and some authorities believe that the globalism is destructing the cultural diversity.
It is usually explained as more the people interact with each other they become more parallel to each other. In the year of 2000, Dr. Salvatore Puledda examined this topic in one of his presentations (January 27), and he stressed out that the importance of cultural diversity and defined it as accumulation of ideas, customs, languages, and ways of eating and dressing that come to us from previous generations. He also points out that losing of cultural identity will lose the heritage.
From this point, I agreed with the idea of cultural identity and doubt to say globalism is something to be encouraged for this aspect, because I have always respected the power of languages, and I am very sensitive about language, in this point I believe the globalism is indirectly killing the languages. The reason why I think is mostly based on my observations, I notice that most of the people use English words in spite the fact that their mother language is not English and they have the same word for any specific expression.
Most of the French and German people use the word “bye” although they have three specific words for that, and if we look detailed we can see so many examples of that, and this situation literally effects the languages in a bad way, and I think that if languages are effected all the history and heritage will be effected too, therefore I don’t think that should be encouraged for this point. There is another effect of globalism that should not be supported by the people, globalism effects on nature.
Needless to say all the improvements and industrial revolution has very dangerous reflection on the nature and habitats, I certainly believe that globalism makes this process faster. Under the globalization circumstances most of the companies get involve with big competitions, and this challenge indirectly requires ‘not to care anything but the money’ and this approach includes ‘not to care about environmental life’.
There is a famous theory of economist Simon Kurnets, his theory basically explains that if per capita income increases then inequality increases to, but when critical income level is reached inequality decreases again, and when we graph this equation it looks like a bell curve, from this theory it is assumed that the Kurnets’s graph can be applied to relationship between income and environment.
In detailed, a country disturbs the nature until its income rate reaches the critical point, therefore we can conclude that third world countries and the progressing countries damages the environment very seriously, another result of that, rich and wealth countries’ environment are the way better than those third world countries, for instance Australia and United States have better environment than Romania or Iraq.
As Nobel Prize awarded writer Joseph Stiglitz emphasized, it is important to manage and control the globalization, in this point there is another question comes up as “Can we affect or control the globalization? ”, for some people this question does not have a positive answer, but for others it is already being controlled by some mechanism and authorities. I believe that the community can isolate and protect itself from the effects of globalization but nobody can conduct the globalization except for the time.
There is no need to say that the time can change anything in the world so that we can say that time can get the globalization and change the structure of it but otherwise globalization is not a controllable thing. However it is possible to stay out of globalization. If we look at Iran and North Korea, we can notice that they stayed isolated from most of the effects of globalization including both good and bad effects. Therefore we can claim that globalism can be resisted but its advantages and disadvantages can be discussed.
As it is explained in the following quotation, “ By 1987, dictatorship was gone in South Korea due to the positive influence of globalization. Economics rapidly improved; educations, standard of livings gradually turned to a fresh page. North Korea went the opposite direction with its isolation and self-dependence policies. Since then, its citizens have been suffering from extreme shortage of powers, manufactured goods, prolonged malnutrition and poor living conditions” we can say that isolation is possible however its effects may vary.
In my final consideration with all those set of materials, I concluded the fact that the globalization exists and it always will because interaction and the dialogue will last forever, and the aspects of globalization may differ depending on the subjects to be encouraged or discouraged but I mostly believe that its bad effects are little more than its benefits. Also globalization is an uncontrollable phenomena and it can not be control by anything but the time. However I agree that is possible to stay out of it and keep isolated.