In recent years, movie class plays a more and more important role in English teaching in China. Most teachers require students to write movie reviews after watching the movie. However, how to write movie review is still remain unclear to students. Some student download a review from the internet, and some write a summary of the movie instead. Genre analysis is a system of analysis by which observations are made on the repeated communicative functions found in genres and on the linguistic features of these functions (Brett, 1994).
Genre knowledge played an important role in helping novices understand how to produce academics, professional or educational discourse. Genre study can help to improve Chinese students’ movie review writing skills. This study was conducted using the framework of genre analysis to explore move structure and underlying patterns of movie review as a genre. The movie we choose is The King’s Speech, an Oscar award winner. The movie combines educational meaning with humorous performance.
The story may seem boring but it was well organized and each of the characters in the movie has his or her distinct personalities. We consider a movie like this one can arouse students’ interests, and students can also have plenty materials to write in their movie reviews. The movie was shown in movie class in Zhejiang University and all students were asked to finish a movie review. There was no word limit, so all students can write as much as they want. After all the movie review was collected, we find out that some of them were copied from the internet.
Besides, several movie reviews have less than one hundred word. It was clear that these students have not taken this work seriously and these movie reviews cannot represent their true ability. We rule out all these movie reviews and choose ten samples from the entire movie reviews randomly. 2. Literature Review Genre has different meaning in different fields. Among them, Swales’ concept of genre for the applied linguistic purposes is the most influential one in the field of genre analysis so far.
Before Swales, Martin (1984) argues that ‘A genre is a staged, goal oriented, purposeful activity, in which speakers engage as members of our culture… Virtually everything you do involves you participating in one or other genre. Culture seen in these terms can be defined as a set of generically interpretable activities. ” Swales (1990) defines genre as ‘A genre comprises a class of communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicative purposes. These purposes are recognized by the expert members of the parent discourse community and thereby constitute the rationale for the genre.
This rationale shapes the schematic structure of the discourse and influences and constrains choice of content and style. Communicative purpose is both a privileged criterion and one that operates to keep the scope of a genre as here conceived narrowly focused on comparable rhetorical action. In addition to purpose, exemplars of genre exhibit various patterns of similarity in terms of structure, style, content and intended audience. If all high probability expectations are realized, the exemplar will be viewed as prototypical by the parent discourse community. ’ (Swales 1990:58) According to Vijay K.
Bhatia (1993), a genre ‘is a recognizable communicative event characterized by a set of communicative purpose(s) identified and mutually understood by the members of the professional or academic community in which it regularly occurs. Most often it is highly structured and conventionalized with constraints on allowable contributions in terms of their intent, positioning, form, and functional value. These constraints, however, are often exploited by the expert members of the community to achieve private intentions within the framework of socially recognized purpose(s). According to Bhatia (1993), genre analysis has progressed through four levels. Register analysis is one of the earliest approaches to the description of varieties of language use, and it focuses mainly on the identification of statistically significant lexico-grammatical features of a linguistic variety. The second level grammatical-rhetorical analysis aims to investigate the relationship between grammatical choice and rhetorical function in written English for science and technology. Discourse analysis as interaction represents the third level of language description.
Most importantly, interactional analysis outlines the concept of interpretation of discourse by the reader or listener. Discourse analysis appears to have steadily moved from surface-level analysis to a deeper description of language use. However, in the context of language teaching for specific purposes, applied discourse analysis seems to represent a rather narrow description of language in use and is inadequate in its explanation. In order to introduce a thick description of language in se, it is necessary to combine socio-cultural and psycholinguistic aspects of text-construction and interpretation with linguistic insights to answer the question: why are specific discourse-genres written and used by the specialist communities the way they are? Genre analysis as an insightful description of English for specific purpose texts has become a useful and powerful tool to arrive at significant form-function correlations which can be utilized for a number of applied linguistic purposes. CARS, which means create a research space is a well-known model for conducting the structural interpretation of a genre.
It was proposed by Swales in 1990. He cites that there is a regular pattern of moves and steps that appear in a certain order in the majority of introductions investigated. Move is a unit that relates both to the writer’s purpose and to the content that he or she wishes to communicate. A step is a lower text unit than the move which provides a detailed perspective on the options open to the writer in setting out the moves in the introduction. This model has a major influence on research and the teaching of writing in ESP.
According to Dudley Evans (1998), from a pedagogical point of view, it is possible to convert the analysis very readily into teaching material that provides a way into both the organization of writing and the relevant language forms. Hyland (2004) also discusses the importance of genre approaches to teaching L2 writing by emphasizing the role of language in written communication. The corpus: data collection The movie review is about the movie The King’s Speech. We choose this movie is because unlike some commercial movies, this movie is a serious historical drama film but also humorous.
It was directed by Tom Hooper and written by David Seidler. Colin Firth plays King George VI who, to cope with a stammer, sees Lionel Logue, an Australian speech therapist played by Geoffrey Rush. The men become friends as they work together, and after his brother abdicates the throne, the new King relies on Logue to help him make his first wartime radio broadcast on Britain's declaration of war on Germany in 1939. It was widely praised by movie critics for its visual style, art direction, and acting. The film received many awards and nominations, particularly for Colin Firth's performance; his Golden Globe Award for Best
Actor was the sole win at that ceremony from seven nominations. The King's Speech also won seven British Academy Film Awards, including Best Picture, and Best Actor (Firth), Best Supporting Actor (Rush), and Best Supporting Actress (Bonham Carter). The film also won four Oscar Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (Hooper), Best Actor (Firth), and Best Original Screenplay (Seidler). The film had received 12 Oscar nominations, more than any other film. With all these awards it has won, there must be plenty of materials for both students and movie critics to write.
Twenty movie reviews were collected. Among them, ten were collected from public websites, and were written by English-speaking professional movie critics, and the other ten were written by college students in Zhejiang University whose native language were not English. The movie is The King’s Speech, which has won the 83rd Oscar award. The movie was shown in Band 3 college English class, and the students are required to write a movie review after class. The reviews were collected a week later. The other ten movie reviews were collected from the website Rotten Tomatoes.