Racism is prejudice or discrimination directed against someone of a different race based on such a belief. An example of racism in the public services comes from a news report on channel 4 earlier this year. The report tells how there has 120 racism cases in the Metropolitan Police over the past decade, but only one officer was dismissed as a result. This shows that racism is common in the public services but is not necessarily dealt with as it should be.

Racist A racist is a person with a prejudiced belief that one race is superior to others. An example of a racist in the public services was reported in The Guardian where a police officer by the name Alex Macfarlane was suspended after he was recorded racially abusing a black man.

Institutionalised racism Institutionalised racism is the collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. An example of institutionalised racism in the public services occurred earlier this year when an NHS trust was found guilty of racially discriminating against a former manager this resulted in them being classified institutionally racist.

Multiculturalism Multiculturalism is the doctrine that several different cultures (rather than one national culture) can coexist peacefully and equitably in a single country. An example of multiculturalism in the public services was recorded in the results of the Citizenship Survey where respondents were asked whether they felt they would be treated better or worse than those of other races by 15 public services. Those that felt they would be treated different also felt they didn’t belong to Britain showing that those who feel they belong to Britain feel they would be treated no different no matter what their race.

Ethnocentricity Ethnocentricity is being centred on a specific ethnic group, usually one's own. An example of ethnocentricity in the public services is in training. Every public service member is taught to not let ethnocentric views affect their behaviour towards others. Currently there has been no media reporting’s of ethnocentricity within the UK public services.

Sexism Sexism is prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex. An example of sexism in the public services is in the fire brigade. Many people refer to fire fighters as firemen even though there are women in the fire brigade. A report from The Guardian in April 2012 tells the true stories of female fire fighters battles to get recognition as they are in the most sex-segregated profession with only 4% of the entire workers being female.

Heterosexist A heterosexist is someone that discriminates in favour of heterosexual and against homosexual people. An example of people showing heterosexist beliefs in the public services is how people associate men in The Royal Navy as being gay when in fact according to The Navy Times in 2010 there are around 66,000 homosexuals serving in military which make up just 2.2%.

Homophobia Homophobia is an extreme and irrational aversion to homosexuality and homosexual people. An example of homophobia in the public services is the headline last year in which the Prime Minister, David Cameron met with homosexual sportsmen in order to promote a campaign to end homophobia in sport.

Equal opportunity Equal opportunity is the policy of treating employees and others without discrimination, especially on the basis of their sex, race, or age. An example of equal opportunities in the public services is in the police force. In the job application process the police are committed to welcoming applications of all candidates regardless of religion, race, disability etc. The police force want their members to be as representative of the community as possible.

Equality Equality is the state of being equal, especially in status, rights, and opportunities. An example of equality in the public services is seen in a report in The Guardian where Prince Harry was sent on an equality course by The British Army after it was revealed that he had been recorded referring to an army colleague with racial comments. This shows that the army have strong beliefs in sustaining equality and there will be consequences for those who breach it.

Prejudice Prejudice is a preconceived opinion not based on reason or experience. An example of prejudice in the public services comes from a recent article which tells how nine fire fighters were disciplined because they refused to attend a gay pride festival because they felt it was morally wrong. But the fire service saw this as them choosing whose life to save based on their own beliefs and this was a breach of their responsibilities.

Harassment Harassment is a feeling of intense annoyance caused by being tormented. An example of harassment in the public services occurred last month when a black man reported metropolitan police for harassment over four years after they had stopped him a total of 50 times according to The Guardian.

Victimisation Victimisation is an act that exploits or victimizes someone meaning to treat them unfairly. An example of victimisation in the public services comes from a report in The Guardian stating that when NHS patients complain that the standard they are receiving is poor, they risk victimisation.

Disability Disability is a physical or mental condition that limits a person's movements, senses, or activities. An example of disability in relation to the public services is the current ban on disabled people joining the armed forces. According to a report in The Telegraph a few years ago, The Equality and Human Rights Commission told the Ministry of Defence that the ban is discriminative towards disabled people.

Direct and indirect discrimination Direct discrimination is when a person is treated less well, in comparison with someone else, because of his or her racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. An example of direct discrimination in the public services was reported in 2008 when a study showed almost 1 in 3 white people felt they were being discriminated against in favour of other ethnic groups by public services.