The world has evolved into a place where convenience is taken as a one of the major reasons why technology is at its peak in its continuous and countless innovations. These innovations are true manifestations that there is no room for being stationary and not disregard the need for continuous brilliant discoveries in order to offer fresh and up to date products and services that will be patronized by the consumers. Amidst this fascinating waves of new products and services to offer, a discovery that has been the most important source of these vivid ideas, has never been given much attention and is abused to its extent. This amazing discovery is what we call Electricity.
Electricity is the flow of electrical power or charge. It is both a basic part of nature and one of our most widely used forms of energy. It is actually a secondary energy source, also referred to as an energy carrier. That means that we get electricity from the conversion of other sources of energy, such as coal, nuclear, or solar energy. These are called primary sources. The energy sources we use to make electricity can be renewable or non-renewable, but electricity itself is neither renewable nor nonrenewable. (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2010)
As stated on an article published last February 23, 2013 which was written by Ronnel Domingo,” Philippines is considered as one of the third world countries where vast resources can be found and can be readily used as a source of energy yet problems are arising since the country lacks the latest technologies to do further research and develop facilities that would solve power shortage the country is facing. This is suffered severely in most parts of Visayas and Mindanao. Because of the lack of reserves that could supply the demand for all the consumers including micro-enterprises, a power curtailment has been the National Grid Corporation of the Philippines’ solution for the shortage.
Power curtailment is a method of cutting off electrical power in certain areas following a schedule pattern. “ In Tacurong City there are numerous micro-businesses owned and ran by individuals, pursuing the definitive goal of building a business that has the ability to gain profit and in the midst of a tight competition between enterprises, another problem occurred which is the Power Curtailment. It is a clear indication that business establishments and firms have direct relationship within the behavior of the power source. Thus this study was designed to determine the Impact of the Power Curtailment on Micro-Enterprises in Tacurong City.
Statement of the Problem
This study sought to determine the effects of power curtailment to the operations, monthly sales, frequency of customers, additional operational costs, growth and expansion, decline and closure to the existing Micro-enterprises in the locality. Specifically this paper will attempt to answer the following research problems:
1. What the profile of the existing micro enterprises in Tacurong City is in terms of:
a.) Location b.) Type of business and c.) Services or product offered.
2. To what extent is the dependence of the micro enterprises on power supply with regards to their electric consumption for their operations?
3. What type of business requires more electric usage?
4. What are the advantages and disadvantages in using an electricity generator as a solution to a long-term problem?
5. What are the effects of power curtailment to the enterprise in terms of: a.) operations, b.) monthly sales, c.) frequency of customers, d.) additional operational costs, e.) growth and expansion, f.) decline and g.) closure
Significance of the Study Power sources play a huge part in development as one of contributing factor for growth, it is important to be aware of the impacts of any hindrances to its availability like power curtailment. Conducting this research will be beneficial to the following: Providers of electricity for them to be aware on the effects of their solution to a long term problem on existing Micro-enterprises within Tacurong City. Owners or Proprietors for them to assess the performance of their business operations with regards to the curtailment and could anticipate for more options on how to earn more despite the occurrence of the same circumstances in the future.
Micro Enterprises as well as the Individual Consumers of electricity so they can be aware of the possible causes of the power shortage which resulted into the establishment of the curtailment. Future Entrepreneurs to identify on which type of businesses they would most likely endure lesser amount of reparation which regards the existence of the power shortage and curtailment. Students as a base research material for the conduct of future related studies.
Scope and Delimitation
This study is limited only to the determination of the impact of power curtailment to the operation of existing micro enterprises in Tacurong City. The respondents are limited only to the owners of the existing micro small enterprises in Tacurong City. This study will be conducted in Tacurong City, province of Sultan Kudarat and will be conducted during the first semester of School Year 2013-2014.
Definition of Terms
To understand further the contents of this research the following terms are defined based on how it is used in this study: Electricity refers to the source of power used by establishments in business operations Micro Enterprises is the smallest businesses in the locality which operates with the least capital and number of employees it is usually operates within a small geographic area to provide services or goods for the community. National Grid Corporation of the Philippines refers to the former National Power Corporation (NAPOCOR) a government owned turned private corporation which serves as the main supplier of electricity all over the country and at the same time an electric regulator of the country. Power Curtailment refers to the method of establishing systemic or scheduled cut off of electricity in areas to defray the shortage of power. Power Shortage refers to the situation where in the supply for power sources like electricity is not enough to defray its demands.
This chapter presents the review of related literature on the Impact of Power Curtailment on Micro-Enterprises in Tacurong City. Related Literature Electricity; its History It is now commonly believed that electrical forces were harnessed by mankind, albeit on a very limited scale, as early as the first century A.D. This belief has been fostered since 1938, when William Konig discovered earthenware objects that were believed to have been used as the first batteries. These artifacts were made of terracotta and contained both a copper cylinder and an iron cylinder inside. It is believed that the ancient people in this area filled these pots with either lemon juice or vinegar, used as a weak electrolyte.
This would strip electrons from one metal post and depositing it on the other metal post, thus creating an electric current. Because of this potential for electric current, these artifacts have since been dubbed Baghdad batteries. Even though the ancients may have had a basic understanding of electrical properties, it wouldn't be until the seventeenth century until scientists really began to investigate the seemingly magical properties of electricity. This is when an English scientists named William Gilbert really began looking into the properties of electricity with a series of experiments that produced static electricity by applying friction to a piece of amber.
William Gilbert would go on to coin the word "electricus", a Latin word that means "like amber", and would later evolve into the word electricity. Research into the properties and applications of electricity would continue at a snail's pace until the nineteenth century when some of the greatest minds in the world began to refine the principles and generation of electricity. Some of the people who helped revolutionize this field included Nikola Tesla, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, George Westinghouse and Lord Kelvin. These great minds transformed electricity from a mere intellectual curiosity into the defined scientific principle that it is today, thereby transforming the entire world. (Graeme Knights, 2013)
From the writings of Thales of Miletus it appears that Westerners knew as long ago as 600 B.C. that amber becomes charged by rubbing. There was little real progress until the English scientist William Gilbert in 1600 described the electrification of many substances and coined the term electricity from the Greek word for amber. As a result, Gilbert is called the father of modern electricity. In 1660 Otto von Guericke invented a crude machine for producing static electricity. It was a ball of sulfur, rotated by a crank with one hand and rubbed with the other.
Successors, such as Francis Hauksbee, made improvements that provided experimenters with a ready source of static electricity. Today's highly developed descendant of these early machines is the Van de Graaf generator, which is sometimes used as a particle accelerator. Robert Boyle realized that attraction and repulsion were mutual and that electric force was transmitted through a vacuum (c.1675). Stephen Gray distinguished between conductors and nonconductors (1729). C. F. Du Fay recognized two kinds of electricity, which Benjamin Franklin and Ebenezer Kinnersley of Philadelphia later named positive and negative. (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2012) Electricity is a form of energy.
Electricity is the flow of electrons. All matter is made up of atoms, and an atom has a center, called a nucleus. The nucleus contains positively charged particles called protons and uncharged particles called neutrons. The nucleus of an atom is surrounded by negatively charged particles called electrons. The negative charge of an electron is equal to the positive charge of a proton, and the number of electrons in an atom is usually equal to the number of protons. When the balancing force between protons and electrons is upset by an outside force, an atom may gain or lose an electron. When electrons are "lost" from an atom, the free movement of these electrons constitutes an electric current.
Electricity is a basic part of nature and it is one of our most widely used forms of energy. We get electricity, which is a secondary energy source, from the conversion of other sources of energy, like coal, natural gas, oil, nuclear power and other natural sources, which are called primary sources. Many cities and towns were built alongside waterfalls (a primary source of mechanical energy) that turned water wheels to perform work. Before electricity generation began slightly over 100 years ago, houses were lit with kerosene lamps, food was cooled in iceboxes, and rooms were warmed by wood-burning or coal-burning stoves. Beginning with Benjamin Franklin's experiment with a kite one stormy night in Philadelphia, the principles of electricity gradually became understood.
In the mid-1800s, everyone's life changed with the inventionof the electric light bulb. Prior to 1879, electricity had been used in arc lights for outdoor lighting. The lightbulb's invention used electricity to bring indoor lighting to our homes. (Mary Bellis, 1997) Electricity is one of the most widely used forms of energy used by humans throughout the world. In early times many cities and towns were built alongside waterfalls (a primary source of mechanical energy) that turned water wheels to perform work. Before the electricity generation began slightly over 100 years ago, houses were lit with kerosene lamps, food was cooled in iceboxes, and rooms were warmed by wood-burning or coal-burning stoves. Most people do not stop to think what life would be like without electricity and tend to take it for granted because it is always there. It does so many things for us such as lighting and heating or cooling homes, powering televisions and computers. (Steve Krar) Elecricity; How is it generated?
According to Arora, electrical energy is produced in generating stations where huge turbines are by moved the generators. Then the electricity is transmitted by long distance power lines to the consumers. Turbines could be started by burning fossil fuels, by water, wind, nuclear fission, bio waste. By burning fossil fuel: Coal, petroleum or natural gas heat water, thus making vapor.This vapor affects the blades of turbines making them to move and produce electricity. This method of producing electricity causes a lot of carbon dioxide to be released into air and atmosphere becomes polluted. Burning fossil fuel can be extremely dangerous because it can cause respiratory diseases and this becomes a global problem.This is the fact we must think about.
By water: Electricity can also be produced by using water from rivers or lakes. This water goes through water turbines making them to generate electricity. We must admit this is very popular way of producing electricity because it doesn’t pollute the environment. But what we have to emphasize, is the fact that it affects the environment in the rivers or lakes severely. By wind: Wind energy is used for producing electricity as well. This energy is renewable energy source because no one can stop wind to blow, it is widely distributed and very clean. Another way to produce electricity is nuclear fission. This is a chain reaction where Uranium atoms are being split apart. In this reaction energy of atoms change into heat energy which heat water to vapor.
It moves turbines and generate electricity. When this reaction is not controlled you can have an atomic bomb and also it creates radioactive material which can hurt people if released. By bio waste: Bio-waste includes burning food waste, garden waste, organic and industrial waste (papers, textiles...). This can reduce use of fossiil fuelsFree Web Content, reduce pollution and gas emissions. (Ashish K. Arora, 2008) Most of the electricity in North America is produced in steam turbines. A turbine converts the energy of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) to mechanical energy. Steam turbines have a series of blades mounted on a shaft against which steam is forced, thus rotating the shaft connected to the generator.