Freud posited that the ___ consists of thoughts and memories that can easily be called forth.
a. conscious
b. subconscious
c. preconscious
d. unconscious
c. preconscious
Freud posited that the ___ consists of what we are currently thinking.
a. conscious
b. subconscious
c. preconscious
d. unconscious
a. conscious
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Freud posited that the ___ consists of repressed feelings and experiences that nonetheless exert a dominant influence over our behavior.
a. conscious
b. subconscious
c. preconscious
d. unconscious
d. unconscious
The genital stage of psychological development occurs from about ages ___.
a. 3-6yrs
b. 2-5yrs
c. 4-6yrs
d. 3-5 yrs
d. 3-5 yrs
The anal stage of psychological development occurs from about ages ___.
a. 1-2yrs
b. 2-4yrs
c. 18 moths-3yrs
d. 1-3yrs
c. 18 moths-3yrs
The oral stage of psychological development occurs from about ages ___.
a. birth-2yrs
b. 6-18 months
c. birth-18 months
d. birth-1yr
c. birth-18 months
According to Freud, each person is born with powerful drives, wishes, urges, and psychic tension that are energized in the form of the ___.
a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. libido
d. libido
According to Freud, one's total psychic apparatus from birth to about age 7 months is comprised of the ___.
a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. libido
a. id
According to Freud, the ___ exercises a sense of morality that controls behavior.
a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. libido
c. superego
According to Freud, the ___ is the organism's contact with the real world.
a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. libido
b. ego
Sociopsychological growth and maturity require grappling with ___.
a. stress
b. reality
c. conflict
d. change
a. stress
Drug-dependent adolescents___.
a. suffer severe ego inadequacies
b. are narcissistic
c. are apathetic
d. all of the above
a. suffer severe ego inadequacies
Learning theory proceeds based on the basis that all forms of behavior are ___.
a. conditioned
b. involuntary
c. voluntary
d. instinctual
a. conditioned
A person ___ a negative reinforcer.
a. works to receive
b. works to escape
c. involuntarily benefits from
d. is involuntarily penalized by
b. works to escape
Part of the psychological explanation for drug abuse has been a presumed ___, a psychological vulnerability resulting from problematic family relationships, inappropriate reinforcement, the lack of healthy role models, contradictory parental expectations, and/or an absence of love and respect.
a. defeatist personality
b. ego deficiency
c. rebellious personality
d. addictive personality
d. addictive personality
Which of the following is cited in the text as a noted behaviorist?
a. Sigmund Freud
b. Howard Becker
c. B.F. Skinner
d. August Aichhorn
c. B.F. Skinner
A person ___ a positive reinforcer.
a. works to receive
b. works to escape
c. involuntarily benefits from
d. is involuntarily penalized by
a. works to receive
The pairing of 2 stimuli, 1 of which elicits a reflex and 1 of which is neutral is known as ___.
a. classical conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. positive reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement
a. classical conditioning
If the probability of a behavior has gone up after the removal of a stimulus, then ___ has occurred.
a. classical conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. positive reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement
When some aspect of animal or human behavior is followed by a certain type of consequence - a reward - the behavior is more likely to be repeated. The reward is called ___.
a. classical conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. positive reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement
c. positive reinforcement
___ decreases the probability or frequency of a behavior.
a. Aversive control
b. Punishment
c. Positive reinforcement
d. Negative reinforcement
b. Punishment
The repeated presentation or removal of a stimulus following a behavior to increase the probability of the behavior is known as ___.
a. classical conditioning
b. operant conditioning
c. positive reinforcement
d. negative reinforcement
b. operant conditioning
According to psychoanalytic theory, a person's reality-testing ability is a function of the ___.
a. id
b. ego
c. superego
d. all of the above
b. ego
Psychoanalytic theories of drug abuse have been criticized for ___.
a. their reliance on retrospective self-reports
b. their reliance on individual case studies
c. limited methods that lack rigorous empirical grounding
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
Behaviorists contend that consequences serve to ___ behavior, and for that reason the consequences themselves are called reinforcers.
a. strengthen
b. validate
c. condition
d. all of the above
a. strengthen