What are Biosocial Theories?
biological factors INCREASE the probability that a person will act criminally but these factors DO NOT necessarily determine behavior
What is the difference between DZ and MZ twins?
DZ (Dizygotic) fraternal-- half of the genes are in common and develop from separate eggs that are fertilized at the same time. MZ (Monozygotic) identical-- all genes are the same, develop from a single fertilized egg that divides into two embryos
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What are Bio-criminologists?
scientists and researchers who study the biological factors affecting delinquent and criminal behavior and who develop biological theories to explain it.
What is Hypoglycemia?
diet related physiological condition that occurs when a person's blood sugar levels falls below acceptable range. Bodies are sensitive to sugar levels in the blood, abnormal levels can impair brain functioning. (confusion, headaches, fatigue, anger, and aggression. Researchers have reported a relationship between hypoglycemia and violent crimes of assault, rape, and homicide.
What are Environmental factors?
Products in the environment that have been linked to behavioral disorders, and severe emotional disorders. Environmental products and toxic substances such as lead, mercury, cadmium, and pesticides.
What is Neurophysiology?
the study of the physiology of the central nervous system. Brain dysfunction and brain damage have been linked to criminality. Researchers have reported that violent patients and incarcerated people suffer from excessive brain dysfunction, especially in the frontal and temporal regions. And apparent in 75 percent of aggressive and depressed sociopathic patients.
There are two types of criminals according to the psychiatric explanations for criminal behavior. What are they?
From a psychiatric perspective, criminals are basically viewed as "sick" individuals. The types are either NEUROTIC which is less seriously mentally ill or PSYCHOTIC which is more serious mentally
Who is Sigmund Freud?
Founder of psychoanalysis, he believed that crime result of an overdeveloped superego. The superego is a morality or "social conscience" learned during childhood. Personality is divided into three parts that are always at conflict with one another they are the id, ego, and superego. -
Who is August Aichorn?
He was a psychoanalyst who believed that criminality is the result of an underdeveloped superego and an unregulated i.d.
Who is Albert Bandura?
He was a social learning theorist and he believed that children learn violent or aggressive behavior as they observe role models, imitate these models, and act out the roles. He believed that a person is not born with the ability to behave violently; rather, people learn aggressiveness through their life experiences and socialization.
What is APD?
Antisocial Personality Disorder at times called the sociopathic personality which involves a history of continuous and chronic antisocial behavior that violates others' rights and may also be criminal.
Behavioral theories of crime focus on what?
Learned human behavior
Freud linked criminality to a sense of guilt that the person retains because of his or her childhood experiences True or False
True---Criminal behavior may be the result of an overdeveloped superego (learned during childhood) that causes a powerful sense of guilt in the individual.
Relatively few persons imprisoned for crimes have been diagnosed as psychotic. True or False
True---Many research studies report that people who commit crime do not suffer from psychological disorders. More than 90 percent of mentally disordered people are not violent. A number of criminological studies have consistently indicated that relatively few persons imprisoned for crimes -- from 5 to 9.5 percent-- have been diagnosed as psychotic.
True or False For Bandura, a person is born with the ability to behave violently.
False--- Bandura believed that a person is not born with the ability to behave violently; rather, people learn aggressiveness through their life experiences and socialization.
True or False Before the average American child finishes elementary school, he or she has viewed on TV more than 18,000 murders and 400,000 other violent acts.
False--- Before the average American child finishes elementary school he or she has viewed more than 8,000 murders and 100,000 other violent acts
True or False According to the National Institute of Mental Health, violence on TV does not affect the aggressive behavior of children
False--- Many studies have linked violence on TV to high levels of aggressive activities, aggressive behavior, and violence in people.
What is social disorganization theory
"increases crime" stresses that crime increases when traditional social guidelines no longer work or when there is a decline in group unity due to ineffective behavior.
What are values?
conceptions of worth or desirability, and they make up our judgments of moral and immoral, good and bad, right and wrong.
What are Social Norms?
Standards and rules of accepted behavior; laws are the codified rules or norms of the society.
Who is William I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki?
Theorist from the Chicago School of Criminology in the 1920's, examined how social disorganization and social change can cause criminal behavior and personal disorganization.
Who is Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay?
Theorist from Chicago School of Criminology and they believed social disorganization to crime and delinquency was due to urban social ecology. (environmental)
What is strain theory?
focuses on the structure of society and the limited means of many Americans to achieve desired goals. In other words, crime and delinquency as a result of the anger and frustration people feel because of their inability to achieve the "American Dream".
Who is Emile Durkheim?
He was a sociologist and the first to develop the concept of anomie (normlessness) to explain increased rates of suicide produced by rapid social change in society.