Which of the following statements best describe what happened to the hospitals built or expanded by Hill-Burton Act funds?
a.
Many such hospitals have consolidated or closed.
b.
Not needing to expand, hospitals have used the funds to upgrade their facilities.
c.
They have continued to use such funds to expand.
d.
When funding ceased, so did hospital expansion.
Many such hospitals have consolidated or closed.
Which of the following nurses fought to have American nursing controlled by nurses rather than physicians?
a.
Clara Barton
b.
Florence Nightingale
c.
Lavinia Dock
d.
Lillian Wald
Lavinia Dock
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Which of the following nurses used political expertise to influence the federal government to develop a Children's Bureau?
a.
Clara Barton
b.
Florence Nightingale
c.
Lavinia Dock
d.
Lillian Wald
Lavinia Dock
Which of the following best describes the most important factor in legislation?
a.
The amount of financing and lobbying behind each choice
b.
The beliefs, attitudes, and values of the policy
c.
The preferences of the majority of American voters
d.
The president's ongoing encouragement for one particular choice
The beliefs, attitudes, and values of the policy
Which of the following is accomplished through the use of public policy?
a.
Solutions to problems of public concern are developed.
b.
A rational, logical problem-solving decision-making process is implemented.
c.
Public safety nets for vulnerable populations are created.
d.
Economic and business management principles are applied.
Solutions to problems of public concern are developed.
Which of the following best describes why it is so difficult to change the paradigm of health care from disease orientation to promoting health orientation?
a.
The belief exists that those without insurance could obtain insurance if they worked hard enough.
b.
People find it difficult to agree on what the ideal paradigm should be.
c.
People realize the media have exaggerated the problems that result from lack of insurance.
d.
Serious reallocation of resources would have to occur.
Serious reallocation of resources would have to occur.
Which of the following best describes how the government controls conditions that individuals cannot?
a.
Appeals to the common sense and good nature of the citizens
b.
Establishes social mores that enable groups to control individuals' behaviors
c.
Passes and enforces law
d.
Uses fear reinforced by police power
Passes and enforces law
Which of the following statements best describes why the federal government is unable to do whatever politicians currently in power want?
a.
The citizens would rise up in rebellion if actions were outrageous.
b.
The lack of funds to implement actions are seen as unreasonable by a majority of voters.
c.
Only the actions authorized by the Constitution are legitimate.
d.
The states would rebel and withdraw from the union.
Only the actions authorized by the Constitution are legitimate.
hich of the following is the basis for any American citizen to feel comfortable expressing an opinion on a political issue?
a.
Amendments to the Constitution
b.
Articles of the Constitution of the United States
c.
Declaration of Independence
d.
Gettysburg Address
Amendments to the Constitution
Which of the following best describes who has the authority to act in every area except those specifically mentioned in the Constitution?
a.
Any individual citizen
b.
Federal government
c.
Local government
d.
State government
State government
Which of the following best describes how the local government is provided authority?
a.
Through the ability to tax local residents to meet local needs
b.
Through the people themselves who band together to create the community
c.
Power delegated from the federal level to the local level
d.
Power delegated from the states
Power delegated from the states
Which of the following statements best describes how policies in the private sector are different from policies in the public sector?
a.
Private sector policies are slow, deliberate, and reactive to events.
b.
Private sector policies are determined by the opinions and feelings of those employed in that sector.
c.
Private sector policies are based on economics and market trends.
d.
Private
Private sector policies are based on economics and market trends.
The president was sent a bill that he did not really like, but he would have been unpopular if he vetoed it, so he did nothing. Which of the following best describes what will happen to the bill?
a.
The bill is dead.
b.
The bill returns to both houses to see if enough votes can be obtained to pass the bill even without the president signing the bill.
c.
The bill becomes law.
d.
The bill sits there until the president signs it or vetoes it.
The bill becomes law.
The forces for the proposed bill are roughly as persuasive, powerful, and well financed as the forces against the proposed bill. Which of the following describes the most likely outcome?
a.
The bill will be debated through a public hearing.
b.
The bill will fail.
c.
The bill will pass.
d.
The bill will remain in the legislature until one side or the other has a majority of votes.
The bill will fail.
An individual has been terminated from his job and has lost his health insurance. Which of the following federal laws allows him to continue his insurance benefits for a specified period of time?
a.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)
b.
Family Support Act of 1988
c.
Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973 (HMO)
d.
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA)
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985 (COBRA)
Which of the following statements best describes an effect of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996?
a.
Individuals who were required to obtain employment lost their health coverage.
b.
Many were happy to be off the government dole and self-supporting.
c.
Persons sought and obtained employment that often included insurance benefits.
d.
The food stamp program decreased in size.
Individuals who were required to obtain employment lost their health coverage.
Which of the following best describes the history of the State Child Health Improvement Act (SCHIP) of 1997?
a.
The law included goals and programs but no funding to achieve them.
b.
The law received extensive support by both Republicans and Democrats.
c.
The law was extended, not renewed by the Bush administration, and then renewed by the Obama administration.
d.
The law was passed by the majority of states but not by the federal government.
The law was extended, not renewed by the Bush administration, and then renewed by the Obama administration.
Which of the following best describes what happened after the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 was enacted?
a.
Additional restrictions in coverage were imposed.
b.
Experimental treatments were approved for reimbursement.
c.
Reimbursement procedures became more efficient.
d.
A prescription drug benefit was added.
A prescription drug benefit was added.
A nurse is employed by the state public health department. Which of the following activities would she most likely complete?
a.
Set up a flu shot clinic at a neighborhood church
b.
Lobby for health care reform to cover more preventive services
c.
Monitor the incidence of influenza in the state
d.
Serve as a volunteer for a state legislator's campaign
Monitor the incidence of influenza in the state
It has been proposed that a new, better approach to health care be tested with a small group to evaluate its effectiveness. Which of the following best describes why this cannot be done?
a.
Any employment in the project would be only temporary, so it would be difficult to find professionals to staff the program.
b.
It is challenging to find appropriate sites located in the target area from which to offer the pilot project service.
c.
No one wants to accept free services if they include being a guinea pig in a research project.
d.
Offering a service establishes a precedent and a sense of entitlement, so it is difficult to discontinue the program.
Offering a service establishes a precedent and a sense of entitlement, so it is difficult to discontinue the program.
Which of the following best describes the most crucial step in policy formation?
a.
Convincing both political parties and independents to support the proposed policy
b.
Defining the issue and placing it on the agenda for possible action
c.
Determining who has vested interest in what aspects of the policy
d.
Trying to simplify the proposed legislation so the public will support it
Defining the issue and placing it on the agenda for possible action
A nurse suggests to the students that they attend the local district nurses' association meeting, where the nurse is an officer. Which of the following provides the best rationale for this action?
a.
Meeting outside the clinical area allows for more effective informal learning based on discussion and interaction.
b.
Role models are typically the major influence on nurses choosing to become politically active.
c.
Students are often given extra credit from their instructor for such community involvement.
d.
Such groups want students to attend their meetings to encourage them to join and to accept a committee responsibility.
Role models are typically the major influence on nurses choosing to become politically active.
Which of the following statements best describes why nurses are not more effective in creating political change?
a.
Nurses are not listened to by politicians.
b.
Nurses are not perceived as leaders in the health care field.
c.
Nurses do not act or do not agree on what changes are needed.
d.
Nurses do not know how to negotiate, communicate, and collaborate to create change.
Nurses do not act or do not agree on what changes are needed.
The local nursing association and the local medical association disagreed vehemently on advanced practice nursing reimbursement. Which of the following best describes why the two groups agreed to join a coalition to send representatives to testify on a particular bill?
a.
Although there was disagreement, both groups agreed to behave politely and professionally.
b.
Both associations had formed a coalition to collaborate on a bill that would benefit patients.
c.
Because the legislators had asked both groups to appear, the groups did not have a choice.
d.
The two groups were sharing costs and expenses, but their testimony would give opposing viewpoints.
Both associations had formed a coalition to collaborate on a bill that would benefit patients.
A nurse is employed by the state nursing association to serve as a lobbyist. Which of the following would be the most crucial task to achieve?
a.
Be seen as a reliable and credible source of accurate information
b.
Convince colleagues in nursing to join their local nursing organization and write to encourage legislators to vote according to nurses' goals
c.
Offer to make large donations to the legislator who can forward nursing's agenda
d.
Visit every single legislator so the nurse is recognized in this role
Be seen as a reliable and credible source of accurate information
A nurse represents the state professional association. Which of the following actions would the nurse complete in relation to legislation?
a.
Be prepared to contribute to campaigns of legislators who vote consistently with nursing goals
b.
Be prepared to confront verbally those on the opposite side of legislative issues
c.
Be prepared to provide testimony and comment on relevant issues
d.
Be prepared to visit schools of nursing to present about the current legislative issues
Be prepared to provide testimony and comment on relevant issues
A nurse is unable to be actively involved in attending meetings at the state level. Which of the following actions would be most useful for the nurse?
a.
Asking students to remain informed regarding proposed legislation
b.
Communicating, with rationales, her stand on proposed legislation to legislators
c.
Remaining uninvolved so incorrect information is not inadvertently given
d.
Writing letters to the local newspaper asking nurses to become involved
Communicating, with rationales, her stand on proposed legislation to legislators
A nurse states that he or she does not want to become involved in politics because of family, school, work, and other commitments. Which of the following would be the best reply to this statement?
a.
"Good for you. We should all stay out of such dirty game playing!"
b.
"I am sorry to hear that but I do understand."
c.
"It doesn't matter; politics have nothing to do with nursing practice."
d.
"It won't take much time to join ANA and pay dues so their lobbyist can represent you."
"It won't take much time to join ANA and pay dues so their lobbyist can represent you."
Which of the following statements best describes why nurses should contribute whenever possible to their state nursing association political action committee (PAC)?
a.
As PACs are a reality of political life, nursing needs to be heard.
b.
Contributing money may result in a future political appointment.
c.
Only money really has any influence on legislative votes.
d.
PACs are being used to increase nursing salaries and working conditions.
As PACs are a reality of political life, nursing needs to be heard.
Which of the following best describes what is being discussed in relation to concerns over patients' safety and nurse fatigue?
a.
All hospitals are now required to report errors made that are a result of low nurse staffing.
b.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is monitoring the incidence of medical errors caused by nurse understaffing.
c.
The Registered Nurse Safe Staffing Act was passed by Congress in 2013.
d.
Legislation has been suggested that staffing systems require the input of direct care registered nurses.
Legislation has been suggested that staffing systems require the input of direct care registered nurses.
A nurse would like to influence an internal private health policy. Which of the following actions should the nurse take?
a.
Build or join a private entrepreneurial practice to provide lower cost services to underserved groups
b.
Participate in public discussions regarding quality and managed care
c.
Support nursing research done that demonstrates positive clinical and economic outcomes
d.
Write managed care organizations to request that nurses receive reimbursement for health services to clients
Support nursing research done that demonstrates positive clinical and economic outcomes
What was the poverty guideline for a family of four in mainland United States in 2013?
a.
Below $23,550
b.
Below $25,250
c.
Below $28,550
d.
Below $32,250
Below $23,550
Which of the following best describes the purposes of professional societies such as the American Nurses Association (ANA)? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Providing control and oversight of the occupation
b.
Creating licensing laws to control entry into the profession
c.
Determining appropriate requirements for education into the profession
d.
Establishing standards for practice
e.
Protecting the interests of the practitioners
f.
Safeguarding the public trust
Providing control and oversight of the occupation

Establishing standards for practice

Protecting the interests of the practitioners

Safeguarding the public trust

Which of the following is one legally required to obey? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Directions to a destination provided by a police officer
b.
Court decisions related to legislative law
c.
Delegation of responsibility for a task by a physician
d.
Executive decisions, such as your employer requirements
e.
Laws passed by your state or the federal government
f.
Rules and regulations from agencies, such as the state board of nursing
Court decisions related to legislative law

Laws passed by your state or the federal government

Rules and regulations from agencies, such as the state board of nursing

Which of the following current issues are leading the World Health Organization (WHO) to reconsider its initial definition of health? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Environmental issues such as industrial toxins or carcinogenic commercial products
b.
Global, not local, problems such as spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
c.
Need to move from containment and treatment to social intervention
d.
Pressure from industrialized nations to emphasize chronic diseases rather than infectious diseases
e.
Realization that government actions influence the basic human right of health
f.
Worldwide pandemics such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and swine flu, which require a different approach
Environmental issues such as industrial toxins or carcinogenic commercial products

Global, not local, problems such as spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria

Need to move from containment and treatment to social intervention

Realization that government actions influence the basic human right of health

Worldwide pandemics such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and swine flu, which require a different approach

Which of the following best describes the new national health goals as seen in Healthy People 2020? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Achieve a plan for universal basic health care for citizens
b.
Create social and physical environments that promote good health
c.
Eliminate health disparities
d.
Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death
e.
Achieve health equity
f.
Promote healthy behaviors at every stage of life
Create social and physical environments that promote good health

Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death

Promote healthy behaviors at every stage of life

Which of the following statements best describes a notable change of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Legislated a funding increase for RN staffing
b.
Changed from process evaluation to outcome evaluation when evaluating care
c.
Established guidelines for the use of restraints
d.
Created health maintenance organizations nationwide
e.
Added prescription drug benefits for Medicaid recipients
f.
Required all states to review certificates of need before agencies could expand
Changed from process evaluation to outcome evaluation when evaluating care

Established guidelines for the use of restraints

Added prescription drug benefits for Medicaid recipients

Which of the following were among the outcomes of the 1979 report Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention? (Select all that apply.)
a.
A national committee was established to have hearings and study the problem further.
b.
Increased funds were allocated for health planning and health care.
c.
Many of the recommendations were adopted on the federal level.
d.
The Health Objectives Planning Act of 1990 was passed.
e.
The federal government began to identify and monitor national health care goals.
f.
The president addressed the American people about the need for health care reform.
The Health Objectives Planning Act of 1990 was passed.

The federal government began to identify and monitor national health care goals.

Which of the following critical issues in health care were addressed by The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Portability of insurance coverage
b.
COBRA, maintaining coverage for those who lose their jobs
c.
Insurance companies having a total monopoly in a certain geographic area
d.
Insurance companies setting limits on coverage of longer than 12 months
e.
Insurance companies charging seriously ill persons more than healthy persons
f.
Insurance companies paying the same for mental health coverage as for physical illnesses
Portability of insurance coverage

Insurance companies setting limits on coverage of longer than 12 months

Which of the following actions represent a shift in philosophy at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? (Select all that apply.)
a.
Collecting and analyzing health data
b.
Creating integrated health information systems
c.
Allocating resources to treat specific diseases
d.
Encouraging partnerships and strategic alliances
e.
Creating transaction-based relationships
f.
Leveraging resources to steer the larger health system
Creating integrated health information systems

Encouraging partnerships and strategic alliances

Leveraging resources to steer the larger health system