Mr. Remick asks 9-year-old Anne to divide a pitcher of lemonade equally between two glasses, one each for her and her friend Kate. The two glasses are different shapes, with Anne's being tall and thin and Kate's being short and wide. After Anne pours the lemonade, Mr. Remick says to her, "Look, the lemonade in your glass is higher than the lemonade in Kate's glass. Did you give yourself more than you gave Kate?" "No," Anne replies, "my glass is skinnier." Mr. Remick continues to ask Anne questions to determine how well she understands that height compensates for width in this situation. Mr. Remick's strategy can best be described as illustrating:
The clinical method
Larger systems of mental processes are known as:
From Piaget's perspective, children are:
Eager to interact with and make sense of their world
Which one of the following statements best describes Piaget's view of how children acquire knowledge about the world?
Children actively construct their own view of the world from their experiences with the environment
Five-year-old Becky is playing with blocks, stacking them one on top of another until her towers eventually tumble, and then stacking them again. Which one of the following best reflects Piaget's view of how Becky is probably learning in this situation
She is actively thinking and interpreting the results of her actions
An organized group of similar thoughts or actions
In Piaget's theory, a scheme can best be described as:
In her first trip to a zoo, 7-year-old Latisha notices that leopards have paws very similar in shape to her cat Snowball's paws. She also notices that leopards walk in much the same way that Snowball does. Latisha starts to wonder if perhaps leopards are cats. Latisha's thinking illustrates Piaget's idea that thought is characterized by:
Use of schemes
Which one of the following clearly illustrates Piaget's concept of assimilation?
Five year old Harvey draws on the chalkboard with a large white crayon instead of with chalk
Which one of the following statements best describes the idea that cognitive development involves a process of construction?
Children pull together pieces of information about a topic to create their own understandings.
Louis receives a new soccer ball and begins to dribble it in the same way he dribbles his basketball. His dribbling of the new ball reflects Piaget's concept of:
Which of the following is not a concept described by Piaget?
Zone of proximal development
The processes of assimilation and accommodation both involve:
Relating new information to prior knowledge
According to Piaget, three of the following are essential for cognitive development. Which one is not?
Which one of the following teachers is definitely keeping in mind Piaget's idea that assimilation and accommodation are both necessary for cognitive development?
Mr. Chang shows students how a new topic is similar to the things they already know but also different in certain ways.
From Piaget's perspective, social interactions are most likely to promote cognitive development when:
Children share and explain different points of view.
As a first-grade teacher reads a book about penguins in Antarctica, she points to Antarctica on a globe. Six-year-old John seems really puzzled. "How come they don't fall off the earth?" he asks. From Piaget's perspective, John can best be described as
Which one of the following best reflects Piaget's notion of equilibration?
A child revises existing schemes to incorporate new information.
A child revises existing schemes to incorporate new information.
Discrete stages in which distinctly different forms of logical thought emerge
Which one of the following examples best illustrates symbolic thought?
Laura asks herself, "Hmm, where did I put my social studies book?"
Which one of the following examples best illustrates Piaget's concept of object permanence?
Two-year-old Jasmine looks for a favorite toy her father has just hidden in a box.
Piaget's sensorimotor stage is characterized by:
Schemes based primarily on perceptions and behaviors
From Piaget's perspective, why is language critical for children's cognitive development?
It gives them a means for symbolically thinking about objects and events.
Piaget spoke of egocentrism as a characteristic of preoperational thought. Three of the following are examples of egocentrism as Piaget defined it. Which one is not?
Justin is constantly grabbing objects and pulling them toward himself.
Roger is shown two piles of sand and says that each pile has the same amount. However, when one pile is flattened with a shovel, Roger now claims emphatically that the flattened pile has less sand. Based on this information, Roger is probably in Piaget's ________ stage of development.
Imagine that you are a third-grade teacher. If you were to make predictions based on Piaget's stages of cognitive development, you would expect most or all of your students to exhibit ________ thinking.
If we look at cognitive development from Piaget's perspective, we would expect a child in the concrete operations stage to have the greatest difficulty with which one of the following questions?
An apple pie is cut into 4 pieces. A blueberry pie of the same size is cut into 12 pieces. How many pieces of blueberry pie do you need to have the same amount as 3 pieces of the apple pie?
Carl can correctly answer a question such as, "If all flegs are blats, and if all blats are dulms, are all flegs also dulms?" From Piaget's perspective, Carl is most likely in the ________ stage of cognitive development.
Olivia understands why 3/5 and 9/15 are equivalent fractions. Based on this information, Olivia is probably in Piaget's ________ stage of development.
James is talking about how much better the world would be if everyone just agreed to love everyone else. In Piaget's view, James is most likely to be:
14 years old
In describing the cognitive abilities of infants, Piaget appears to have:
Underestimated what they know and can do
Which one of the following would Piaget be least likely to advocate for elementary school children?
Younger students haven't attained proportional reasoning.
Three of the following teaching practices are consistent with Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Which one is not
A second-grade teacher encourages students to speculate about possible explanations as to why kites of different shapes fly differently and then test each explanation systematically.
Which one of the following conditions is most likely to help children learn from a discovery learning activity?
Having some prior knowledge about the material being explored
Three of the following teaching strategies should help students benefit from a discovery learning activity. Which strategy is least likely to be helpful?
Mr. DiCicco takes his students to the site of a Civil War battle and says, "OK, look around and see what you can find that might be of interest to your peers."
Which one of the following best illustrates how sociocognitive conflict might promote cognitive development?
The students in a cooperative learning group discuss different ways of solving a difficult math problem.
After explaining what sines and cosines are, a high school math teacher shows students how they might use these concepts in constructing a large building. Which one of the following principles does this scenario best illustrate?
Acquiring the cognitive tools of one's culture enables youngsters to live and work more effectively.
Which one of the following is the best example of a cognitive tool?
The concept of pi (π) in a geometry class
Vygotsky proposed that thought and language are:
Largely independent before age two but closely connected thereafter
Which one of the following best illustrates Piaget's concept of accommodation?
Carol revises her understanding of what clouds are like when she studies them in science.
Which one of the following statements best describes Vygotsky's concept of internalization?
Through their social interactions with other people, children acquire ways of mentally approaching and thinking about a task.
From Vygotsky's perspective, what important role does inner speech play
By giving themselves directions about what to do next, children guide themselves through complex tasks.
From a Vygotskian perspective, scaffolding serves what purpose in instruction?
It supports children as they perform difficult tasks.
Vygotsky's concept of zone of proximal development refers to:
The range of tasks children can accomplish only with support
Several parents who are making costumes for an elementary school play ask the young cast members to assist them with such tasks as cutting fabric, pinning pieces together, and sewing simple hems. Using the language of Vygotskian theorists, we can say that the parents are:
Engaging the students in guided participation
Leonard is teaching Sally how to play a new card game. During the first time through the game, Leonard looks at Sally's cards and helps her decide how to play them at each turn. As Sally becomes more familiar with the game's rules and strategies, Leonard gives her fewer hints and less assistance. This scenario best illustrates:
Xavier loves to write poetry. Often he uses techniques that his favorite poets use, but typically he modifies these techniques to better suit his own style. This situation illustrates which one of the following concepts in Vygotsky's theory?
Which one of the following issues reflects a fundamental difference between Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of cognitive development?
How much children depend on adult guidance to make cognitive gains
Which one of the following best reflects the use of the sensory register component of the human information processing system?
Bill can remember something he heard for a second or two even though he wasn't paying attention.
Which one of the following situations reflects the typical duration of working memory?
Darrell looks up the correct spelling of the word fossil, repeats the letters once, and closes the dictionary. But by the time he finds a piece of paper on which to write the word, he has forgotten how to spell it.
To prepare for his test on Tuesday morning, Harry studied on Monday night. He remembered the information long enough to do well on the test on Tuesday but could not remember it for a surprise quiz a week later. Based on this information, how far in Harry's information processing system did the information get?
It reached long-term memory.
Information processing theorists often emphasize the importance of attention in the learning process. Why is attention so important?
It moves information from the sensory register into working memory.
Which one of the following examples best illustrates involvement of a central executive in information processing?
Brigette thinks about how she can best prepare for a history test.
Mr. Wagner stands in front of the class explaining the process of photosynthesis. Ellen is sitting in the front row, but her mind is on the fight she had with her best friend just before class. Based on this information, how far in Ellen's information processing system did Mr. Wagner's lecture get?
It reached the sensory register.
A staff member at a child care center says to you, "The children at our center range in age from 6 weeks old to 5 years old. I often wonder when their visual perception abilities become fully developed." You can most accurately respond by saying:
"Visual perception isn't truly adultlike until age 3 or 4, when the visual area of the cortex matures to an adultlike form."
As three-month-old Isabella lies in a comfortable infant seat, a researcher shows her a variety of pictures on a video screen. If Isabella is typical of children her age, which one of the following pictures is apt to hold her attention the longest?
A smiling face
Which one of the following students is most likely to have trouble learning in a noisy classroom?
A first grader
When 3-year-old Marcus first tries riding a tricycle, he pedals it slowly and awkwardly, and he has trouble steering it where he wants it to go. Over time he becomes increasingly proficient, and eventually he can ride a tricycle with little conscious effort. Marcus's progress illustrates the role of ________ in development.
From the perspective of contemporary developmental theorists, a script can best be described as:
Knowledge about the typical sequence of events in an activity
When children practice basic skills over and over again, they can eventually perform them quickly and with little thought or effort. An advantage of such automatization is that the skills:
Require less working memory capacity
Four boys read this line from a story: "The two men entered the restaurant and ordered hamburgers." Which one of the boys is clearly using a script while reading the story?
Colin assumes that the men probably looked at a menu before ordering.
Other things being equal, which one of the following four boys is likely to learn and remember the most by reading a book about spiders?
Eight-year-old Albert, who knows a lot more about spiders than the other boys do
Mr. Martinez wants his first-grade students to be able to automatize their ability to recognize common words when they read. Which one of the following techniques will best help his students achieve that goal?
Give them lots of practice reading the words.
After looking up the word rhinoceros in the dictionary, Miguel repeats the letters over and over to himself to help him remember them. Which one of the following strategies does Miguel's behavior illustrate?
Tyler learns that Christopher Columbus's first voyage across the Atlantic was financed by Queen Isabella of Spain. He thinks to himself, "She probably thought she would make a profit on her investment." By considering the queen's motives, Tyler is demonstrating which one of the following processes?
An information processing perspective of development portrays cognitive development as:
Gradually improving cognitive abilities
Considering developmental trends in learning strategies, choose the statement that best characterizes how high school students are apt to approach school learning tasks.
Some high school students intentionally organize and elaborate on class material; others rely largely on rehearsal.
Marco is taking an elective class on world religions. As he studies, he thinks about how certain tenets of Islam are in some ways similar to his own Christian beliefs. What learning strategy is Marco using?
Maria is trying to remember all of the objects in her locker at school. "Let me think . . . pens, pencils, markers . . . um, math book, science book, notebooks . . . my coat, hat, and gloves . . . I can't remember any more." What learning strategy does Maria's response illustrate?
Epistemic beliefs can best be described as youngsters' views about:
What knowledge is and how it is acquired
Which of the following can teachers do that will be most likely to encourage self-regulated learning?
Give children frequent opportunities to set goals.
Three of the following statements about epistemic beliefs are true. Which one is false?
Children with more advanced epistemic beliefs are more likely to struggle with academic subject matter.
How do young children's estimates of their memory capacity relate to reality?
They usually overestimate how much they can remember.
Three of the following should help youngsters acquire more effective learning and study strategies. Which one is least likely to do so?
Express confidence that with time and effective strategies, they can learn everything there is to know about a topic.
Which one of the following best describes the nature of conceptual change?
Revising one's beliefs after receiving information that contradicts those beliefs
Which one of the following examples illustrates conceptual change?
Charlotte used to think that fire was an actual substance, but now she knows it's a chemical change.
Fourteen-year-old Trevor spends several hours each night reading and studying his textbooks, yet he rarely earns a grade above D on quizzes that assess what he has learned. Which one of the following is apt to be most useful in your efforts to help Trevor study more effectively?
Information processing theory
Ms. Dante notices that one of her students is not submitting her homework on time. This has been happening on a consistent basis. Which one of the following would be most likely to be helpful for Ms. Dante to use to help her student to submit the work in a timely manner?
Provide more structure for future assignments.
Tammy tells Mr. Brookes that she really wants to do well in his government class, but she doesn't seem to study the right things and so always get low scores on quizzes and tests. Before the next test, the two of them meet after school and create a list of questions she should try to answer as she reads and studies. This situation can best be described as:
It is difficult for children to think about too many things all at the same time-a fact that reflects:
The limited capacity of working memory
Which one of the following children provides the best example of emergent literacy?
When four-year-old Jack plays school with his older sisters, he fills a sheet of paper with lines of random letters.
Research indicates that a major advantage of giving children multiple experiences with books during the preschool years is that they:
Learn to read more easily once they begin school
Phonological awareness can best be described as:
A child's ability to hear the individual sounds within a spoken word
Three of the following teachers are employing strategies to promote phonological awareness in their students. Which teacher is using a strategy that, although potentially beneficial for other reasons, will not necessarily promote phonological awareness?
Ms. Noble has the words to, too, and two posted on her wall. When students use those words in their speech, she asks them to point to the one they are using.
Which one of the following students is definitely demonstrating automatization in word recognition?
When Kristen reads, she recognizes words by sight and recalls their meanings immediately.
Four-year-old Rosemary picks up a picture book and pretends to read it to one of her preschool classmates. "Once upon a time," she says, "there was a fairy princess. She was very beautiful. A handsome prince asked her to marry him. They lived happily ever after. The end." Which one of the following is the most reasonable interpretation of Rosemary's behavior?
She has acquired a story schema for fairytales.
A faculty committee is revising the goals for the school district's reading curriculum. Three of the following goals are developmentally appropriate. Which one is not?
By the end of fourth grade, students should be able to identify symbolism in a novel.
Imagine that you are a second-grade teacher. If you were looking for signs of possible dyslexia in one or more of your students, which one of the following would you be most likely to look for?
Unusual difficulty hearing individual sounds in spoken words
Which one of the following alternatives most accurately describes ethnic and cultural differences in children's reading development?
Young people respond more favorably to literature that reflects their cultural customs.
Five-year-old Chip writes "I WN TU B FIRMN WEN I GRO UPP." When you ask him to read what he has written, he says: "I want to be a fireman when I grow up." You can reasonably conclude that Chip:
Has acquired considerable phonological awareness
Imagine that you are a high school teacher. Which one of the following assumptions should you make about your students' reading abilities?
Many will continue to need guidance about how to read effectively.
Young children sometimes pretend to write "grocery lists," restaurant "menus," and doctors' "prescriptions" in their sociodramatic play. Parents and preschool teachers are apt to see three of the following characteristics in such pseudowriting. Which one are they least likely to see?
Periods or commas at the ends of "sentences"
Which one of the following metacognitive skills related to writing poses the greatest challenge for adolescents?
Identifying problems in their own writing
Which one of the following writing assignments for young writers is most likely to promote an awareness of one's audience?
Write a description of snow for someone who has never seen it.
Which one of the following statements is most accurate about a typical 5-year-old child's understanding of numbers and/or counting?
Most 5-year-olds know that when you count a group of objects, you should count each object in the group once and only once.
Which one of the following alternatives best characterizes a central conceptual structure view of children's mathematical development?
Children acquire a multidimensional understanding of numbers that integrates earlier, separate understandings of quantity, numerals, and counting.
Which one of the following statements best describes the invented spellings often seen in kindergartners and first graders?
They are often interpretable even though they frequently omit important phonemes in words.
Robbie Case's theory that children acquire a central conceptual structure for numbers can best help you explain which one of the following?
Why 8-year-old Eldon cannot answer the question, "Which is more, the difference between 2 and 6 or the difference between 7 and 9?"
Three of the following strategies are recommended for helping children acquire mathematical concepts and skills.Which one is not recommended?
Encourage children to do problems entirely in their heads whenever possible.
When 10-year-old Meg tackles a word problem that requires her to add the numbers 29 and 56, she arrives at the solution "715." Based on her error, you might reasonably guess that Meg:
Does not engage in metacognitive oversight of her problem solving
Three of the following statements reflect common sources of diversity in science development. Which statement is false?
Girls tend to like science more than boys like science.
When do most youngsters begin to understand historical time and attach meaning to historical dates?
About fifth grade
Youngsters' artistic development in adolescence is largely the result of:
Continuing instruction and practice
Niesha is able to sing a recognizable tune. You can reasonably guess that Niesha is at least:
Five years old
As educators define the term, content area standards are general statements regarding:
What knowledge and skills youngsters should acquire at different grade levels
Eight-year-old Gregory says that the light inside a light bulb is "really shiny stuff that's kind of slimy and clings to the wires in the bulb." Gregory's description of light reflects his use of ________, which is quite common in children and adolescents.
a substance schema
Different theorists conceptualize intelligence differently, but most agree that intelligence:
Involves many different cognitive processes
Four high school teachers have just learned that one of their students, Ralph, has scored extremely well on an intelligence test. Which teacher reveals a belief in the concept of g in intelligence?
Mr. Grant says, "Ralph has trouble remembering basic math facts, but he's very good when it comes to solving challenging math problems."
Max is quite skilled in cartography, the art of making maps. Without knowing anything else about Max, in which of Gardner's multiple intelligences would you expect him to be strong?
Robert is a 15-year-old boy who has attended U.S. schools since he began kindergarten at age 5. With this fact in mind, identify the task that is most likely to require Robert's fluid intelligence rather than his crystallized intelligence.
Solving a new kind of puzzle
The original purpose of intelligence tests is still their main purpose today—that is, to:
Identify children who may require special services or interventions
Which one of the following statements best reflects Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence?
Intelligent behavior is a function of how well people draw on prior experiences and cognitively process information in order to adapt to a new situation.
Three days a week, 8-year-old Erica meets with a tutor after school to help her with her reading and writing skills. If you wanted to know how much Erica is benefiting from the tutoring, you would most likely use:
A dynamic assessment instrument
Which one of the following tasks are you least likely to see on the Bayley Scales?
A multiplication word problem
Judging from what you have learned about how intelligence is typically measured, which one of the following would you be least likely to find on an intelligence test?
How many friends do you have?
Twin studies show that monozygotic (identical) twins who are raised in separate homes have similar IQ scores. Such evidence:
Suggests that intelligence is partly influenced by heredity
Poor nutrition is a problem for many children who live in poverty. Which one of the following situations is likely to be associated with poor nutrition?
Jill appears to have trouble remembering things and does not seem motivated to achieve in school.
Which one of the following statements best reflects most psychologists' current views about the relative effects of heredity and environment on intellectual development?
Determining the relative effects of heredity versus environment may ultimately be impossible.
Researchers have discovered that gender differences in various cognitive abilities are due to three of the following. Which one is not a likely source of gender differences?
Differences in forehead shapes of boys versus girls
Which one of the following items on an intelligence test is most likely to have cultural bias?
Croquet is to mallet as golf is to _______.
On average, how do children who are gifted compare to their peers in social and emotional development?
They tend to be above average in social development, and most are emotionally well adjusted.
When a group of children were given the WISC-IV in January and again in April, their scores tended to be quite similar on both occasions. Such a result indicates that the WISC-IV:
Has good reliability
Which one of the following is the best example of an adaptive behavior, as the term is used in the identification of intellectual disabilities?
Ability to remember and follow normal classroom routines
Three of the following elementary school teachers are using strategies that are appropriate for students with intellectual disabilities. Which teacher is not using an appropriate strategy?
Ms. Connors keeps a close eye on students and gives them instructions at least once every five minutes.
Which one of the following is a correct interpretation of a high school student's IQ score of 115?
The student has performed better on an intelligence test than the majority of students of the same age.
In addition to low general intelligence and poor academic performance, what other characteristic must be present to classify a child as having an intellectual disability?
Difficulty functioning in age-appropriate ways in the social environment
Studies of monozygotic (identical) twins who are raised in the same home are more similar in IQ than twins who are raised in different homes. Such evidence:
Suggests that intelligence is partly influenced by environmental factors
Three of the following statements about the effects of heredity and/or environment on intelligence are accurate. Which one is not accurate?
Biologists working in the Human Genome Project have recently identified the chromosome that carries the "intelligence" gene.
Researchers have suggested a variety of explanations for why children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) families often perform less well on IQ tests and in school than their higher SES counterparts. Three of the following are common explanations. Which one is not?
In general, parents in low-SES families don't appreciate the importance of a good education.
Which one of the following is a legitimate reason for not relying solely on intelligence tests when identifying students who are gifted?
Because traditional tests are based on mainstream Western culture, children from ethnic minority groups may be overlooked.
The teacher of a sixth grade class is concerned about the poor academic performance of a 12-year-old student named Nancy. The teacher looks through Nancy's school records and discovers that Nancy got an IQ score of 80 when she took an intelligence test in preschool. Considering the textbook's discussion of IQ scores, the teacher should conclude that:
Nancy's IQ score in preschool is not necessarily a good reflection of her capability in sixth grade.
Two years ago Sean took an intelligence test and earned a score of 99. Recently he took the same test and earned a score of 102. Yet at school Sean earns straight-A grades, and his teachers consider him to be an outstanding student. Given what you've learned about intelligence tests and IQ scores, choose the most likely explanation for the apparent discrepancy between Sean's IQ score and school performance.
Question 26 options:
Sean probably gets support for academic achievement from family and friends and is motivated to do well at school.
Which one of the following teachers is using a strategy that reflects the concept of distributed intelligence?
Mr. Chinn encourages his students to use their calculators when solving algebraic word problems.
Within the context of Vygotsky's perspective of cognitive development, why do students who are gifted often not benefit from regular classroom instruction?
Because they aren't working within their zone of proximal development
Lily is ten years old. She gets a score of 97 on an IQ test. What does this tell us about her intellectual ability?
Lily's score is fairly average for her age group.
Marissa seems to be a "born leader." As president of the school service club, she can often persuade her classmates to get involved in school and community service activities. Given this information, we could conclude that Marissa has a strength in which one of Gardner's multiple intelligences?
Sam is a very talented dancer; he also shows considerable creativity in art class. He finds math and science classes very difficult, but he loves to read and tell stories to his many friends. Which view of intelligence is best reflected in Sam's abilities?
Gardner's multiple intelligences