The space between neurons in the brain most likely contributes to complex thinking in humans.
Infants usually double their birthweight by the end of their first year.
Self-righting inhibits the brain development of infants who have enriching environments.
Eli is 6 months old. He slaps the water redeatedly each time he is in the bathtub, squealing as the water splashes. His tendency to continue splashing water demonstrates his sensation and his attempts to make sense of it.
The first part of the brain to develop is the prefrontal cortex.
According to the test, Beals hypothesis about ______ led to a campaign that lowered the SIDS death rate significantly in several countries.
babies sleeping on their backs
Malnutrition is seroius because of which of the following potential consequences?
some chronic and deadly diseases result directly from malnutrition
Lyrissa lives in Africa. She is 9 months old and does not weigh enough due to malnutirion. Her tissues are wasting away. Lyrissa suffers from _______
The brain develops extremely quickly in the first few years, but not all of this growth is permanent. Due to its rapidity and temporary nature, this rapid brain growth is called ______
transient exuberance
An abusive caregiver shakes an infant to get her to stop crying. The infant stops crying. Why?
Blood vessels in her brain rupture and neural connections break.
Binocular vision appears between ______ months of age.
2 and 4
Large movements that coordinate many parts of the body are known as ______ motor skills.
Whenever the eyes, ears, tongue, skin, or mouth detect a stimulus, a(n) ______ has occurred
Alma brought her 6-month-old son to the doctor for a well-baby visit. The doctor says that her son's weight is in ther 20th percentile. What does this definitely mean?
He is small compared to other 6-month-olds
The outer layers of the brain are referred to as ______
the cortex
Linda and Gary, newly arrived at home with their week-old child after a difficult birht, feel they cannot separate from their baby at night, allowing it to share thier bed. This pracitice is called ______.
Transient exuberance is the ______
rapid growth of dendrites during the first few years of life
Young children quickly begin to recognize attitudes and emotions in the faces of others. Early on they can differentiate people of their same ethnic background, and read expressions of emotionally particular to that culture. The persistence of this ability, often to the detriment of reading unfamiliar expressions of emotion, is called _______
the own-race effect
Newborns perceive important experiences like breastfeeding ______
with dynamic sensory-motor systems.
Binocular vision refers to the ability to ______
focus on an object with both eyes.
The stage of tertiary circular reactions is when infants begin experimenting with thought and deed.
Habituation research is a technique that Piaget developed for testing his theories.
A child's first word combinations - for examples, "More cookie," or "My toy" - are called holophrases.
One of the first acquired adaptions is an accommodation of reflexes - fro example, the reflexes involved in sucking a pacifier.
After completing all of Piaget's six stages of sensorimotor development, babies are unable to use their imagination.
Britta had begun repeating syllables such as "da-da-da-da" and "me-me-me-me." Britta is in the ______ stage of language development.
Darius is learning the names of tow or three new objects or events every day. This rapid inrease in vocabulary is referrenced to as the ______ explosion.
Greg is 10 months old, and he refuses to crawl across the visual cliff even though his mother is encouraging him to do so. When he was six months old, he squirmed across it without hesitation. What has changed for Greg?
His experience with crawling had led him to understand that crawling over an edge affords falling.
According to Paget, a stage-five sensorimotor baby is like a ______
scientist who experiemtns to see what will happen.
Tia is facinated with the toilet. So far, her parents have caught her trying to flush a stuffed animal, a toy cell phone, and a handful of dog kibble. Which sensorimotor stage is Tia in?
stage 5
Harris is a 3-week old newborn. A test of habituation reveals that he prefers listening to his mother's language over any other language. Harris ______
recognizes the rhythm, sound, and cadence of his mother's language.
Modern research that includes new technology indicates that infants ______
make some cognitive advances earlier than Piaget proposed
Piaget called an infant's first period of cognitive development ______
sensorimotor intelligence
Stage three of sensorimotor development is characterized by trying to continue an experiene, whereas stage ______ is characterized by initiating and anticipating events.
Piaget's theory asserts that development occurs in stages, and information-processing theory asserts that development ______.
occurs daily
Objects permanence is demonstrated by an infant who ______
searches for a toy that has fallen from sight.
When does it first become obvious that a person has discerned the rules of his or her native language?
when the person starts using two-word sentences.
On average, children begin saying recognizable words at around ______ months of age.
An example of stage-three sensorimotor behavior is ______.
looking for a smile and smiling back.
The distinct language form known as child-directed speech is a ______.
simplified language that adults use when talking to babies.
Around age 1, an emerging sense of "me" and "mine" leads to a new consciousness of others.
Social learning is acheieved by observing others.
Baby Roland wants his bottle, but he can't reach it. He gets angry, his face turns red, and he yells loudly. His anger is a healthy response to his frustration.
Like Freud, Erikson argued that problems and conflicts that arise in early childhood could adversely affect one's adult personality.
According to Freud, preventing sucking or weaning too early during infancy may have lasting effects on personality development later.
A child's typical activity during the oral stage is ______.
sucking on a pacifier
Center-based day care is common in countries like France, Israel and China, where ______.
it is heavily subsidized by the government.
Which hormone is associated with encouraging caregiving behaviors?
Jimmy's dad comes home from grocery shopping, sees Jimmy sitting on the sofa, and says, "Where's that boy of mine?" Jimmy give his dad a smile that spreads across his entire face, and his dad responds with an exaggerated surprised look. This is an exmaple of ______.
Adam is playful, but sometimes moody; fussy but generally tolerant; and sometimes quiet, and other times boisterous. His temperament would be categorized as ______.
Allocare refers to the care of childre by
people other than their biological parents
Developmentalists have found that social learning takes place ______.
throughout life
Which specific part of the brain is responsible for the development of the social smile and laughter?
the cortex
A baby searches the faces of her parents to see how to respond in unfamiliar situations. This is called ______.
social referencing
How do people become "fixated" in a Freudian stage?
Their normal developmental urges are frustrated.
Baby Carrie's father is holding her. She is smiling at him one minute and then, unexpectedly, she slaps his face. Since this is typical behavior for her, she may have which type of attachment?
Andrew has recently begun to display the emotion of anger. How old is Andrew liekly to be?
6 months
Which characteristics must be present before an infant can experience pride, shame, or guilt?
social awareness
When playing with their children, mothers are more liekly than fathers to ______.
play peek-a-boo and patty cake
According to Erikson, failure to develop autonomy over one's own actions is most closely identified with ______.
shame and doubt