According to social scientists, race is ______.
A. part of the microsystem
B. defined by heritage
C. a social constuction
D. multidirectional
C
The difference between one developing person and the norm is ____.
A. a genetic flaw
B. not always considered a deficit
C. a result of their deficiency
D. usually considered normal
B
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Which of these research designs studies changes over time?
A. survey
B. cross-sequential
C. cross-durational
D. observational
B
Science is needing int he study of human development because
A. nonempirically based opinions arise from research
B. people usually agree on how children should be raised
C. the information we get from research is definitive
D. research provides data and facts that will enable people to live full lives
D
Other names for the nature versus nurture debate include
A. learning versus environment
B. experience versus environment
C. heredity versus genetics
D. heredity versus environment
D
Which of the following is a characteristic of scientific observation?
A. it requires a large number of participants
B. it requires specialized equipment such as video recorders
C. it involves observing and recording behavior in a natural setting
D. it must take place in a lab setting
C
The biopsychosocial approach
A. emphasizes the biological factors in development
B. underestimates the role of cognition in development
C. considers the biological, psychosocial, and social influences in development
D. is unpopular in modern psycholoy
C
Which step of the scientific method involves making a specific prediction?
A. draw conclusions
B. test the hypothesis
C. pose a question
D. develop a hypothesis
D
For which research method is the primary data source information gained from interviews and questionnaires?
A. case study
B. survey
C. correlational
D. scientific observation
B
What does it mean when a correlation exists between two variables?
A. there is a relationship between two variables
B. cause and effect have been established
C. one variable caused the other to change
D. a relationship between two variables was not established
A
Human development is plastic, which means traits ______.
A. are rigid and unchanging
B. are entirely dependent on experience
C. are flexible and never durable
D. can be molded, yet are durable
D
Which is unethical research behavior?
A. halting the study if potential harm is suspected
B. offering a modest incentive to participate
C. changing the data to support the hypothesis
D. reporting results to participants
C
In the nature-nurture debate, most developmentalists believe that
A. nature is more influential
B. nurture is more influential
C. nature and nurture combine to determine outcomes
D. nature and nurture are both unimportant when compared to genes and environment
C
The only research method that establishes a possible cause-and-effect relationship is
A. a case study
B. a survey
C. an experiment
D. scientific observation
C
People who came of age during the Great Depression all come from the same
A. region
B. socioeconomic class
C. race
D. cohort
D
Scientists design studies to investigate theories because
A. there is one correct interpretation
B. theories are not facts
C. economy and political belief are important
D. philosophic belief must be proven
B
A group of ideas, assumptions, and generalizations that interpret and illuminate observations that have been made about human growth is referred to as a ______ theory.
A. behavioral
B. psychoanalytical
C. humanistic
D. developmental
D
Information-processing theory seeks to explore
A. cognitive dissonance
B. cognitive equilibrium
C. processes of human thought
D. how computers work
C
Who argued that if psychology was to be a true science, psychologists should examine only what can be seen and measured?
A. Freud
B. Watson
C. Erickson
D. Jung
B
According to your text, theories produce
A. guidance and generate hypotheses
B. hypotheses and generate discoveries
C. discoveries and generate guidance
D. discoveries and generate hypotheses
B
Maslow believed that all people have the same basic needs and drives. He arranged those into what was called
A. social hierarchy
B. hierarchy of needs
C. survival hierarchy
D. mental health hierarchy
B
According to sociocultural theory, human development is the result of an interaction between developing persons and their
A. physical well-being
B. surrounding society and culture
C. epigenetic experiences
D. genetic ancestry
B
A psychologist who uses an eclectic approach during therapy
A. emphasizes nature
B. emphasizes nurture
C. uses several theoretical perspectives
D. implements elective theory
C
According to evolutionary theory, every species shares the biologically based drives for
A. self-fulfilling potential
B. love and reproduction
C. survival and reproduction
D. love and respect
C
Which theory emphasizes learning through modeling?
A. social learning theory
B. classical conditioning
C. operant conditioning
D. psychoanalytic theory
A
Pavlov's experiment in which he conditioned dogs to salivate after hearing a bell demonstrated what he called
A. operant conditioning
B. psychoanalysis
C. classical conditioning
D. instrumental conditioning
C
A major difference between Erikson and Freud is that
A. Freud emphasized the child's relationship to the family, whereas Eirkson emphasized the child's relationship to his or her own sexual urges
B. Freud emphasized adulthood, whereas Erikson emphasized childhood
C. Freud emphasized psychosexual development, whereas Erikson emphasized psychosocial development
D. Freud thought that fathers had little role in development, whereas Erikson saw fathers as central to development
C
Carl Rogers believed that we should see each other with apprecation without conditions. He referred to this as giving each other ________ regard.
A. positive
B. conditional
C. unconditional
D. unconditional positive
D
The behaviorist most associated with operant conditioning is
A. Lev Vygotsky
B. Ivan Pavlov
C. B.F. Skinner
D. Jean Piaget
C
According to cognitive theory, our thoughts shape our
A. attitudes and actions
B. feelings and proximal development
C. unconscious motives and drives
D. senses and motor skills
A
Which type of twins originates from one zygote that splits apart?
A. dizygotic
B. monozygotic
C. fraternal
D. conjoined
B
Each parent contributes a sex chromosome. Which statement about sex chromosomes is accurate?
A. The mother's ovum contains an X or Y and the father's sperm contains an X or Y.
B. The mother's ovum contains an X or Y and the father's sperm contains an X.
C. The mother's ovum contains an X and the father's sperm contains an X or Y.
D. The mother's ovum contains an X or Y and the father's sperm contains a Y.
C
A person's genetic inherited potential is called the ______
A. genotype
B. autotype
C. somatype
D. phenotype
A
Human genome research cannot pinpoint the exact number of genes because
A. they are microscopic
B. they keep changing
C. Pax6 genes vary
D. it is hard to figure out where one gene starts and another stops
D
Most recessive disorders are on the ______ and thus not X-linked.
A. chromosomes
B. recessive gene
C. dominant gene
D. autosomes
D
Chromosomal abnormalities occur when the zygote's cells have ____
A. 23 pairs of chromosomes
B. gametes with 46 chromosomes
C. more or fewer than 46 chromosomes
D. the usual number of chromosomes
C
A general term for the techniques designed to help infertile couples conceive and then sustain a pregnancy is
A. in vitro fertilization
B. assisted reproduction technology
C. intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection
D. zygote implantation
B
No human trait is determined by genes alone because via _____ programming, health and behavior are mediated through altered gene expression
A. epigenetic
B. changeling
C. polygenetic
D. carrier
A
Genes influence every disorder, yet with each disorder _____ can make a difference in the expression and outcome.
A. imprinting
B. differentiation
C. polygenics
D. environmental and social influences
D
Alcoholism is ____
A. exclusively a result of inherited biochemistry
B. rarely influenced by culture
C. a result of the interaction of nature and nurture
D. more common among women than men
C
Shortly after the zygote is formed, it begins the processes of duplication and division. Each resulting new cell has
A. the same number of chromosomes as were in the zygote
B. half the number of chromosomes as were in the zygote
C. twice, then four times, then eight times the number of chromosomes as were in the zygote
D. no chromosomes at all
A
The basic unit on a chromosome used for the transmission of heredity is called
A. gene
B. RNA
C. cell
D. protein
A
The full set of genes for a living organism is called a
A. genome
B. cell
C. DNA
D. zygote
A
A statistic that indicates what percentage of the variation of a particular trait can be traced to genes is
A. heritability
B. genome
C. dominance
D. recession
A
Awareness of genetic risks helps parents
A. decide whether to have kids
B. take preventative measures during child nurturing
C. ignore nurture
D. enforce rules at home
A
The stage of prenatal development that lasts from week three through eight is the
A. blastocyst
B. embryonic
C. fetal
D. germinal
B
Low birthweight (LBW) is defined as a body weight less than ____ at birth.
A. 3 pounds
B. 5 1/2 pounds
C. 7 pounds
D. 10 pounds
B
What is anoxia?
A. lack of oxygen during birth
B. lack of emotional support during labor
C. toxins in the bloodstream
D. brain damage
A
The strong loving connection between a parent and newborn is called the
A. Oedipus complex
B. parent-infant bond
C. love connection
D. prenatal bond
B
The stage of prenatal development that lasts from the ninth week after conception until birth is
A. fetal
B. blastocyst
C. embryonic
D. germinal
A
In what percentage of births in the United States are cesarean sections performed?
A. 11
B. 21
C. 34
D. 41
C
The likelihood of many developmental complications can be greatly reduced through
A. extreme exercise
B. the science of risk analysis
C. exposure to teratogens
D. there is no way to reduce such complications
B
Which term refers to an involuntary response to a particular stimulus?
A. motor skill
B. habit
C. reflex
D. symbolic representation
C
A doula is a woman who
A. is pregnant for the first time
B. helps with the birth process
C. helps couples with infertility problems
D. counsels women who have postpartum depression
B
Moderate use of which of these substances has been associated with fetal abnormalities?
A. chocolate
B. tobacco
C. caffeine
D. trans fat
B
The first two weeks of development after conception is called the
A. fetal period
B. germinal period
C. embryonic period
D. implantation period
B
The term couvade refers to
A. a male doula
B. the father's experience of pregnancy
C. the father's impact on a child's development
D. a male birthing physician
B
Agents and conditions that harm the prenatal brain and impair learning and behavior are called
A. behavioral risks
B. critical risks
C. primitive streaks
D. behavioral teratogens
D
When parents cooperate to raise their child,t hey have
A. lower cortisol rates
B. an increase in birth hormones
C. a decrease in brain activity
D. formed a parental alliance
D
The Apgar scale measures the
A. adequacy of prenatal growth
B. duration of labor
C. newborn's health following birth
D. intensity of pain during labor
C
All _____ are functional at birth, although some are more developed than others.
A. sensations
B. brain stems
C. cognitions
D. perceptions
A
By his or her first birthday, a newborn's weight typically
A. remains unchanged
B. doubles
C. triples
D. quadruples
C
Gross motor skill is to crawling as fine motor skill is to
A. standing
B. holding a rattle
C. grabbing
D. crawling
C
A process that stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease is
A. marasmus
B. paralytic
C. immunization
D. sudden infant death syndrome
C
Which sense is the least developed at birth?
A. smell
B. sight
C. touch
D. hearing
B
Where and how much a child sleeps are shaped by
A. babies' need for privacy
B. availability of separate sleeping quarters
C. brain maturation
D. socioeconomic status
C
Linda and Gary, newly arrived back at home with their week-old child after a difficult birth, feel they cannot separate from their baby at night, allowing it to share their bed. This practice is called
A. monitoring
B. attachment
C. overlying
D. co-sleeping
D
Breast-feeding reduces the risk of which of the following?
A. pruning
B. asthma
C. self-righting
D. head-sparing
B
Which term is used to describe the process in which unused brain connections die?
A. neuron reduction
B. selective elimination
C. pruning
D. dendrite reduction
C
Which term describes what occurs when the brain notices and processes a sensation?
A. sensation
B. confusion
C. selection
D. perception
D
Young children quickly begin to recognize attitudes and emotions in the faces of others. Early on they can differentiate people of their same ethnic background, and read expressions of emotionality particular to that culture. The persistence of this ability, often to the detriment of reading unfamiliar expressions of emotion, is called
A. the own-race effect
B. emotional blindness
C. prosopagnosia
D. prejudice
A
According to the text, Beal's hypothesis about ____ led to a campaign that lowered the SIDS death rate significantly in several countries.
A. putting babies on softer mattresses
B. babies sleeping on their backs
C. babies co-sleeping
D. babies getting nothing but milk before bed
B
Malnutrition is serious because of which of the following potential consequences?
A. some chronic and deadly diseases result directly from malnutrition
B. an increase in body reserves may result from malnutrition
C. marasmus will fail to develop
D. brain development will speed up
A
At 12 months, Toni was malnourished. His body stopped growing, but his brain did not. This supports the concept of
A. wasting
B. stunting
C. atrophy
D. head-sparing
D
The brain development controls many functions. The development in discrete areas of the brain with control over different functions of perception and cognition can be seen in
A. synaptic intersection
B. corticol regulation
C. specialization in areas of the cortex
D. synaptic pruning
C
Scientist have attempted to integrate the three main theories of language development into one theory known as
A. hybrid theory
B. universal grammar
C. cognitive theory
D. language acquisition device
A
The difference between primary and secondary circular reactions is that
A. primary circular reactions involve the infant responding to people and objects
B. secondary circular reactions involve the infant's own body
C. secondary circular reactions involve the infant reacting to people and objects
D. primary circular reactions involve the infant anticipating
C
Modern research that includes new technology indicates that infants
A. do not respond to child-directed speech
B. have neurons that lack functional electrical activity
C. make some cognitive advances earlier than Piaget proposed
D. have "infantile amnesia"
C
The social-pragmatic theory of language development highlights the importance of
A. impulsive teaching
B. brain maturation
C. social interaction
D. innate traits
C
Cultural differences in communication appear to influence
A. whether new talkers say names
B. whether the baby prefers nouns over other parts of speech
C. the ratio of nouns to verbs and adjectives
D. the use of holophrases
C
The typical order of spoken language development is
A. reflexive, cooing, babbling, simple words
B. cooing, squealing, vowel sounds, simple words
C. squealing, cooing, reflexive, simple words
D. cooing, babbling, reflexive, simple words
A
Most babies speak their first recognizable words by
A. 6 months
B. 8 months
C. 10 months
D. 12 months
D
Recent research on early affordances providers evidences that
A. input and cognitive processing become slower with age
B. input becomes quicker with age, but cognitive processing stays the same
C. input and cognitive processing do not show much change until the child is much older
D. even during the first year of life, age makes a difference in which affordances will be perceived and then acted on
D
Most developmentalists agree that very young infants can remember if
A. they try hard enough
B. they are rewarded for correct performance
C. they are in the same environment or context as the initial experience
D. researchers establish a supportive environment for study
C
Behaviorists believe that a mother who ____ will stimulate her child's communication skills.
A. uses sign language
B. uses reinforcement
C. ignores mistakes
D. points out mistakes
B
According to Chomsky, how do infants learn language?
A. they are taught language
B. they have a natural capacity for language learning
C. they are socially motivated to communicate
D. they use a combination of strategies
B
Stage four of sensorimotor intelligence is characterized by
A. primary circular reactions
B. new adaptation and anticipation
C. accomodations
D. object permanence
B
When do infants begin learning language?
A. before birth
B. at birth
C. around 2 to 4 months
D. at 12 months
A
Tertiary circular reactions are characterized by
A. infants responding to their own bodies
B. infants responding to objects or other people
C. infants habituating to stimuli
D. active independent exploration and experimentation
D
Piaget's first two stages of sensorimotor intelligence are called
A. object permanence
B. secondary circular reactions
C. primary circular reactions
D. goal-directed behavior
C
The specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain is
A. associated tasks
B. lateralization
C. integrative processing
D. limbic processing
B
All forms of artistic expression blossom during
A. middle childhood
B. adolescence
C. toddlerhood
D. early childhood
D
Brain maturation, motivation, and guided practice make _____ skills possible.
A. cognitive
B. social
C. cultural
D. all motor
D
The most common cause of death in childhood is
A. cancer
B. diabetes
C. allergic reactions
D. accidents
D
A typical 6-year-old in a developed nation
A. weighs between 40 and 50 pounds
B. is at least 4.5 feet tall
C. looks chubby, not lean
D. has baby-like body proportions
A
Why do experts prefer the term "injury control" to the term "accident prevention"?
A. the use of the term "accident" suggests that no one is at fault and that certain events are inevitable.
B. though accidents can be prevented, it is more useful to minimize injury
C. federal funding is available for efforts aimed at "injury control," but not those designed for "accident prevention."
D. the word "prevention" is overused and is generally avoided by all experts
B
Which statement is true of age-dependent obsessive-compulsive behaviors?
A. it refers to young children's insistence on routine
B. it becomes particularly evident after 6 years of age
C. it is pathological development in a young child
D. it is uncommon in children under 6
A
Which is crucial for the overall expression and regulation of emotions?
A. limbic system
B. prefrontal cortex
C. corpus callosum
D. thalamus
A
The process by which axons become coated with a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron is
A. myelination
B. amygdala
C. reticular formation
D. lateralization
A
Exposure to high levels of lead has been directly correlated with
A. improved motor skills
B. reduced intelligence
C. cognitive focus
D. academic achievement in adolescence
B
The 2-year-old brain weighs ____ percent of what it will weigh in adutlhood.
A. 25
B. 30
C. 55
D. 75
D
Deliberate action that is harmful to a child's physical, emotional, or sexual well-being is the definition of ____.
A. child maltreatment
B. child abuse
C. child neglect
D. substantiated maltreatment
B
The major nutritional deficit in early childhood in developed countries is insufficient ____
A. calories
B. proteins and fats
C. iron, zinc, and calcium
D. carbohydrates
C
A primary-prevention measure to reduce child abuse would be to
A. remove the child from the home
B. jail the perpetrator
C. have social workers make a home visit
D. improve the economic climate and decrease financial instability
D
Fine motor skills require two hands and thus ____ sides of the brain.
A. one
B. two
C. three
D. no
B
According to Piaget, one of the reasons that logic is beyond young children is that
A. young children are not capable of fast-mapping
B. young children tend to engage in cognitive reversal processes
C. young children assume that the world is always changing
D. young children contemplate the world exclusively from their own personal perspective