germinal period
The first two weeks of prenatal development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differentiation.
embryonic period
The stage of prenatal development from approximately the third through the eighth week after conception, during which the basic forms of all body structures, including internal organs, develop.
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fetal period
The stage of prenatal development from the ninth week after conception until birth, during which the fetus gains about 7 pounds (more than 3000 grams) and organs become more mature, gradually able to function on their own.
implantation
The process, beginning about 10 days after conception, in which the developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uterus, where it can be nourished and protected as it continues to develop.
embryo
The name for a developing human organism from about the third through the eighth week after conception.
fetus
The name for a developing human organism from the start of the ninth week after conception until birth.
ultrasound
An image of a fetus (or an internal organ) produced by using high-frequency sound waves. (also called sonogram)
age of viability
The age (about 22 weeks after conception) at which a fetus might survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available.
Apgar scale
A quick assessment of a newborn's health. The baby's color, heart rate, reflexes, muscle tone, and respiratory effort are given a score of 0, 1, or 2 twice -- at one minute and five minutes after birth -- and each time the total of all five scores is compared with the maximum score of 10 (rarely attained).
cesarean section
A surgical birth, in which incisions through the mother's abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly, instead of being delivered through the vagina. (Also called simply section.)
cesarean section
A surgical birth, in which incisions through the mother's abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly, instead of being delivered through the vagina (also called section)
doula
Someone who helps with the birth process.
teratogen
An agent or condition, including viruses, drugs, and chemicals, that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death.
behavioral teratogens
Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning.
threshold effect
In prenatal development, when a teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level.
fetal alcohol syndrome
A cluster of birth defects, including abnormal facial characteristics, slow physical growth, and reduced intellectual ability, that may occur in the fetus of a woman who drinks alcohol while pregnant.
false positive
The result of a laboratory test that reports something as true when in fact it is not true.
cerebral palsy
A disorder that results from damage to the brain's motor centers.
anoxia
A lack of oxygen that, if prolonged, can cause brain damage or death.
low birthweight
A body weight at birth of less than 5 1/2 pounds (2,500 grams).
very low birthweight
A body weight at birth of less than 3 pounds, 6 ounces (1,500 grams).
extremely low birthweight
A body weight at birth of less than 2 pounds, 3 ounces (1,000 grams).
preterm
A birth that occurs 3 or more weeks before the full 38 weeks of the typical pregnancy -- that is, at 35 or fewer weeks after conception.
small for gestational age
A term for a baby whose birthweight is significantly lower than expected, given the time since conception. (Also called small-for-dates.)
immigrant paradox
The surprising, paradoxical fact that low SES immigrant women tend to have fewer birth complications than native-born peers with higher incomes.
Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
NBAS; A test often administered to newborns that measures responsiveness and records 46 behaviors, including 20 reflexes.
reflex
An unlearned, involuntary action or movement in response to a stimulus; occurs without conscious thought.
breathing
The _______ reflex begins even before the umbilical cord is cut; additional reflexes to maintain oxygen: hiccups, sneezes and thrashing to escape something that covers the face.
sucking
The _______ reflex causes newborns to suck anything that touches their lips.
rooting
The _______ reflex in which babies turn their mouths toward anything that brushes against their checks.
Babinski
The _______ reflex occurs when a newborn's feet are stroked and their toes fan upward.
stepping
The _______ reflex occurs when newborns are held upright, feet touching a flat surface, and they moe their legs as if to walk.
swimming
The _______ reflex occurs when the newborns are held horizontally on their stomachs, they stretch out their arms and legs.
palmar grasping
The ______ reflex occurs when something touches the newborns' palms and they grip it tightly.
moro
The ______ reflex occurs when someone bangs on the table the newborns are lying on, and the newborn flings their arms outward and then bring them together not heir chest, crying with wide-open eyes.
postpartum depression
A new mother's feeling of inadequacy and sadness in the days and weeks after giving birth.
couvade
Symptoms of pregnancy and birth experienced by fathers.
parental alliance
Cooperation between a mother and a father based on their mutual commitment to their children; the parents support each other in their shared parental roles.
parent-infant bond
The strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their newborn.
kangaroo care
A form of newborn care in which mothers (and sometimes fathers) rest their babies on their naked chests.
placenta
The organ that develops within the mother's uterus to surround, protect, and nourish the developing embryo and fetus is called a ________.
threshold
Some teratogens will cause no damage to a developing child until there has been a minimum amount of exposure achieved. That minimum amount, called a _______ effect, is different for various agents.
preterm
A ______ birth is one that occurs three or more weeks before the full 38 week gestational age.
doula
Similar to a midwife, this professional works along side the medical doctors to assist the parents in labor and delivery.
fetus
The ninth week after conception, an embryo becomes a ________.
bond
The parent-infant _______ is the strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold their newborn baby.
implantation
_______ is when the zygote embeds itself in the lining of the mother's uterus.
embryo
A developing human organism from about the third through the eighth week after conception is now called an ________.
viability
The age after conception (around 22 weeks) at which a fetus could survive outside of the mother's uterus with the assistance of special medical care is known as the age of _________.
kangaroo
________ care is a practice in which a newborn is held close to the skin after birth.
germinal
The ________ period is the first stage of prenatal development and is marked by rapid cell diviosn and the start of cell differentiation.
syndrome
Mental retardation, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity are several of the symptoms of fetal alcohol ________, which is caused by drinking during pregnancy.
ultrasound
An image produced by high-frequency sound waves.
anoxia
This medical condition literally means 'no oxygen,' and can cause brain damage or death if it is prolonged during birth.
cesarean
During labor, Rhonda had to undergo a _______ section because a vaginal delivery of her child was medically risky. This procedure involved making an incision in Rhonda's abdomen so that the baby could be removed quickly.
postpartum
The hormonal changes that occur in a women's body after delivering a child can lead to _______ depression, which leads to feelings of sadness, inadequacy, and in severe cases can cause psychotic symptoms.
teratogens
Agents or conditions that can cause harm to a developing embryo or fetus, leading to birth defects. They can include drugs, viruses, and chemicals, in addition to other factors.
Apgar
The ______ scale is a quick assessment of a newborn's heart rate, color, reflexes, muscle tone, and respiratory effort. It is given at one and five minutes after birth.
B
The stage of prenatal development that lasts from week three through eight is the _____.
A. blastocyst
B. embryonic
C. fetal
D. germinal
B
Low birthweight (LBW) is defined as a body weight less than _____ at birth.
A. 3 pounds
B. 5 1/2 pounds
C. 7 pounds
D. 10 pounds
A
What is anoxia?
A. lack of oxygen during birth
B. lack of emotional support during labor
C. toxins in the bloodstream
D. brain damage
B
The strong loving connection between a parent and newborn is called the _____.
A. Oedipus complex
B. parent-infant bond
C. love connection
D. prenatal bond
A
The stage of prenatal development that lasts from the ninth week after conception until birth is _____.
A. fetal
B. blastocyst
C. embryonic
D. germinal
C
In what percentage of births in the United States are cesarean sections performed?
A. 11
B. 21
C. 34
D. 41
B
The likelihood of many developmental complications can be greatly reduced through _____.
A. extreme exercise
B. the science of risk analysis
C. exposure to teratogens
D. There is no way to reduce such complications
C
Which term refers to an involuntary response to a particular stimulus?
A. motor skill
B. habit
C. reflex
D. symbolic representation
B
A doula is a woman who _____.
A. is pregnant for the first time
B. helps with the birth process
C. helps couples with infertility problems
D. counsels women who have postpartum depression
B
Moderate use of which of these substances has been associated with fetal abnormalities?
A. chocolate
B. tobacco
C. caffeine
D. trans fat
B
The first two weeks of development after conception is called the _____.
A. fetal period
B. germinal period
C. embryonic period
D. implantation period
B
The term couvade refers to _____.
A. a male doula
B. the father's experience of pregnancy
C. the father's impact on a child's development
D. a male birthing physician
D
Agents and conditions that harm the prenatal brain and impair learning and behavior are called _____.
A. behavioral risks
B. critical risks
C. primitive streaks
D. behavioral teratogens
D
When parents cooperate to raise their child, they have _____.
A. lower cortisol rates
B. an increase in birth hormones
C. a decrease in brain activity
D. formed a parental alliance
C
The Apgar scale measures the _____.
A. adequacy of prenatal growth
B. duration of labor
C. newborn's health following birth
D. intensity of pain during labor