kinetic molecular theory
explains gas behavior. gases made of tiny particles far apart relative to their size. particles are in continuous random motion. no force of attraction or repulsion between particles. average kinetic energy of particles depends on temperature.
elastic collisions
collisions between particles and container or other particles
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ideal gas
hypothetical gas whose P, V, and T behavior is completely described by the ideal-gas equation.
5 properties of gases
low density, indefinite shape/volume, compressibility and expandability, diffusivity and pressure
diffusion
the spread of one substance throughout a space throughout a second substance
effusion
the escape of gas molecules through a tiny hole into an evacuated space
real gas
a gas that does not behave as an ideal gas due to interactions between gas molecules
pressure
the force acting upon an object. different than force since this depends upon how much of an area the force is being exerted upon.
newton
unit for force
p
f/a
barometer
measures pressure
STP
1 atm, 273 K (0 C)
three variables
pressure, volume, temperature
boyle's law
relationship between P and V. inverse relationship. when p increases, v decreases. P1V1=P2V2
charles law
relationship between V and t. when v increases, t increases. direct relationship. V1/T1=V2/T2
absolute zero
lowest temperature ever on the Kelvin scale. 0 K = 273 C
gay-lussac's law
relationship between P and T. when p increases, t increases. direct relationship. P1/T1 = P2/T2
combined gas law
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
partial pressure
the pressure exerted by a particular component of a gas mixture.
dalton's law of partial pressure
Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ....
gay-lussac's law of combining volumes of gases
at a given temperature and pressure, the volumes of gases that react with one another are ratios of small whole numbers.
avogadro's law
the volume of a gas at a given temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas. V = constant x n
22.4 L
standard molar volume of a gas
ideal gas law
PV = nRT
graham's law of diffusion
rate1 / rate2 = square root of MM2/MM1