Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events defines
attention
Kwan is driving to campus and his phone rings. Based on the results of studies on divided attention, should Kwan answer the phone?
no, he would experience a negative impact on his driving behavior since he would focus more on the phone call then traffic signals
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Which of the following was NOT a level of processing associated with verbal information as suggested by Craik and Lockhart (1972)?
functional
The method of loci involves
associating to be remembered items with a particular location.
Retrieval from long term memory is usually BEST when the information has been stored at which level of processing?
semantic
When processing verbal information, if you focus attention on the sounds of words, you are engaging in ____ .
phonemic
Overlearning, or the continued rehearsal of material after you have first mastered it, is
an effective technique to improve retention
The three basic processes in memory are
encoding, storage, and retrieval
Distributed practice refers to learning
over several sessions.
The basic process in memory that involves formation of a memory code is
encoding
According to the serial-position effect, subjects tend to show better recall for items ____ of a list than for items ____.
at the beginning and end; in the middle
Elaboration involves
linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
Schemas, the misinformation effect, source monitoring, and the repressed memory controversy all reflect which unifying theme in psychology?
our experience of the world is highly subjective
Naomi is studying for her law exam. While she is studying, she is trying to think of as many examples as she can to illustrate key ideas. In this case, Naomi is using
an efficient study strategy, because examples should help her to recall key ideas.
Prospective memory involves remembering
to perform actions in the future
A sensory memory
gives you additional time to try to recognize a stimulus
Your memory for personal facts consisting of memories of things you did and when you did them is contained in the
episodic memory
According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory, the memory system that allows for the sensation of a visual pattern, sound, or touch to longer for a brief moment after the sensory stimulation is over is called
sensory memory
Which two types of memories are both considered to be divisions of declarative memory?
semantic and episodic
You look up the phone number of the new Pizza Hut and repeat the number silently in your head until you find a pad of paper to write it down. The process of actively repeating the number is called
rehearsal
Procedural memory
is memory for actions, skills, and operations
The original estimate of the capacity of short-term memory is seven, Cowen proposed a different limit on capacity of ____ items.
4
The memory system that contains memories for factual information such as names, faces, events, definitions, and concepts is the
declarative memory
When you listen to a lecture, the information is held in ____ memory until you write it in your notes.
short-term
Marty is working on his golf swing. When he finally gets that perfect swing he must remember exactly how he positioned his body, the amount of force he used, and the angle in which he brought down the club. Recalling and reproducing the perfect swing requires the use of which memory system?
procedural memory
The ability of people to "juggle" information in working memory in order to reason and make decisions is handled by the ____ component of working memory
executive control system
The consolidation view suggests that after the consolidation of a long-term memory, the memory is stored in a region of the
cerebral cortex
The memory system that is like a giant storehouse that never quite fills up is the
long-term memory.
Retrograde amnesia is a type of organic amnesia in which
a person loses memories of events that occurred prior to a head injury
A student's organized set of expectations about how a college professor is supposed to act is an example of a
Schema
The text described the case of H.M. who following brain surgery developed a severe case of anterograde amnesia. Which of the following statements does NOT accurately describe H.M.'s memory?
he could not remember events that occurred between one year prior to and one year after his surgery
The "tip-of-the-tongue" phenomenon refers to
feeling like you know something but are unable to recall it
Following a serious car accident in which both Rick and Ron suffer head injuries, they both have amnesia. Rick cannot remember events that occurred before the accident, while Ron cannot remember events that occurred after the accident. Rick suffers from ____ amnesia and Ron from ____ amnesia.
retrograde; anterograde
The work of researchers like Loftus on errors in memory suggests that memory is BEST viewed as
a reconstruction of events or materials
Following a rape, the victim had no memory of the rape, but became very anxious if approached by a man. According to Freud's view of memory, this would be an example of
repression
The failure to seek out disconfirming evidence can often lead to:
the overconfidence effect
If forgetting occurs because previously learned information interferes with the ability to retain new information it is referred to as
proactive interference
Loftus' work on eyewitness testimony has clearly demonstrated that
information given after an event can alter a person's memory of the event
If forgetting occurs because newly learned information impairs the memory of previously learned information it is referred to as
retroactive interference
If you incorrectly recall your psychology professor as saying "Psychology is a poor choice for a college major," when in reality it was really your philosophy professor who made the statement, you would be making a
source-monitoring error.
Decay theory is BEST able to explain the loss of memory in
sensory store
Ebbinghaus' research suggested that memory for meaningless information is forgotten
very rapidly in the first few hours after learning
Taking this particular test measures your
recognition
It is beneficial when you take the time to develop a mnemonic device, such as an acronym or acrostic to help you remember information, because it causes you
a. to engage in a deeper level of processing.
b. to organize the information.
c. to make the information more meaningful.
d. all of the above.*****
Answer is all the above
The measure of retention that requires individuals to reproduce information on their own without any cues is
recall