the act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other
discrimination
a type of learning that involves stimulus response connections
conditioning
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the act of responding in the same ways to stimuli that seem to be similar
generalization
a learned avoidance of a particular food
taste aversion
the loss of a stimulus ability to bring about a conditioned response
extinction
an automatic response to a stimulus
unconditioned response
a simple form of learning in which one stimulus calls forth a response normally generated by a different stimulus
classical conditioning
a learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral
conditioned response
a stimulus that causes a response that is not learned
unconditioned stimulus
a stimulus that causes a learned response
conditioned stimulus
counter-conditioning is a conditioning method in which people with fears are exposed to harmless stimuli until fear responses are extinguished
false: flooding
in spontaneous recovery, organisms display responses to stimuli that had been extinguished earlier
true
the use of relaxation techniques to help peoples overcome fears is part of systematic desensitization
true
generalization involves the pairing of pleasant stimuli with fearful ones in order to counteract the subjects fear
false: counter conditioning
pavlov's experiments with dogs are an example of classical conditioning
true
process by which a stimulus increases the chances that a behavior will occur again
reinforcement
method of teaching complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps
shaping
the relationship in quantity, amount, or size between two things
ratio
stimuli that increases the frequency of a behavior that they follow
positive reinforcers
method of learning in which each step of a sequence leads to another step until the final action is achieved
chaining
rewarding a mouse every time it presses a particular button is an example of partial reinforcement
false: continuous
examples of secondary behavior reinforces include food and warmth
false: primary reinforcers
the schedule of reinforcement outlines how often a behavior s reinforced
true
negative reinforces are intended to stop unwanted behavior from occuring
true
reinforcement can include both rewards and punishments
true
conditioning is a type of learning in which people and animals learn to behave in certain ways because of the results of what they do
operant
money and social status are considered ______ reinforcers because their values must be learned
secondary
being allowed to visit a friend because you have completed all of your chores is an example of _______ reinforcement
positive
a process such as riding a bicycle can be learned as a series of steps that build on each other, a process known as ________
chaining
rewarding a behavior every fifth time it occurs is an example of _______reinforcement
partial
the frequency of a behavior and some psychologists do use the term reward interchangeable
reward
stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior
reinforcement
the quantity, amount, or size between two or more things
ratio
unwanted events that decrease the frequency of the behavior they follow
punishment
functions due to biological makeup of an organism
primary reinforcer
the acquiring of knowledge by observing and imitating other people
observational learning
learning that remains hidden until it is needed
latent
system in which people are paid to act correctly by earning rewards, such as points that can be cashed in for treats or privileges
token economies
form of observational learning in which people observe behavior and can later reproduce it
modeling
experienced indirectly through the experience of another person
vicarious reinforcement
approach to active learning that includes six steps to help students absorb information
pq4r
an effort to learn a great deal of information all at once
massed learning
effort to get a general picture of the material covered in a section of text before reading it
preview
the process of studying something regularly so the learning is spread over several days or weeks
distributed learning
phrasing questions about the material to be studied, perhaps by changing headings into questions
question
thinking about material that has been studied in order to better understand and remember it
reflect
repeatedly studying the same material for better understanding and memory
review
attempting to get a general picture of the material to be studied before studying actually begins
preview
stating information about the studied material aloud to improve memory
recite
examining the material to be studied to try to answer questions you have phrased about it
read
the pq4r method of learning was developed by psychologists to help students better absorb and retain information
true
reciting information that you have studied can help you remember that information better
true
distributed learning, also sometimes known as cramming, involves a great deal of study squeezed into a short amount of time
false: massed
massed learning is usually the most effective method of studying
false: distributed