The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture
The persons fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
The theory which holds that behavior is not instinctive but learned
Harry and Margaret Harlow (1962)
Used infant rhesus monkeys to show the importance that adults have in an infant's development
The Harlows
Demonstrated how social isolation causes permanent damage in the mental development of children
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Study of personality and mental disorders and eventually developed the celebrated theory of psychoanalysis
Freud's theory
Biology plays a major part in human development.
Theorize that humans have two basic needs or drives that are present at birth.
1. Need for sexual and emotional bonding called life instinct.
2. Aggressive drive called the death instinct.
Freud's model of personality
Id- The human being's basic drives
Ego- A person's conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure seeking drives with the demands of society
Superego- The cultural values and norms internalized by an individual
Unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction. Present at birth, making a newborn a bundle of demands for attention, touching, and food.
Arises as we become aware of our distinct existence and face the fact that we cannot have everything we want
Operates as our conscience, telling us why we cannot have everything we want.
Begins to form as a child becomes aware of parental demand and matures as the child comes to understand that everyone's behavior should take account of cultural norms
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Swiss psychologist, studied human cognition
(how people think and understand)
Four stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor stage
Preoperational stage
Concrete operational stage
Formal operational stage
Sensorimotor stage
The level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
Preoperational stage
The level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols
Concrete operational stage
The level of human development at which individuals first see causal connections in their surroundings
Formal operational stage
The level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)
Developed the theory of social behaviorism to explain how social experience develops an individual's personality
The part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
Mead's 1st Point
The self is not there at birth; it develops
Mead's 2nd Point
The self develops only with social experience
Mead's 3rd Point
Social experience is the exchange of symbols
Mead's 4th Point
Stated that seeking meaning leads people to imagine other people's intentions
Mead's 5th Point
Explained that understanding intention requires imagining the situation from other's point of view
Looking-Glass Self
A self image based on how we think others see us
Mead's 6th Point
That by taking the role of the other, we become self-aware
Significant others
People, such as parents, who have special importance or socialization
Generalized other
George Herbert Mead's term for widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves
Freud's view
General drives are rooted in the body
Piaget's view
Stages of development are tied to biological maturity
Mead's view
Completely social, allows no biological element at all
I and Me/ID and Superego
ID originates in our biology, but Mead rejected any biological element of the self. In addition, the ID and the superego are locked in continual combat, but the I and the me work cooperatively together.
Peer group
Social group whose members have interest, social position, and age common
Anticipatory socialization
Learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
Mass media
The means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience
Category of people with something in common, usually their age
Total institution
A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative stuff
(Prisons, Mental Hospitals)
Radically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the environment