According to Bandura, to learn anything through observation, the learner must first:
pay attention
Noah is a junior in college and has always been an average student. This semester, he has a political science class for which he feels very passionate, and he sees himself pursuing a career in politics. For the first time, he wants to do well so that he can get an "A." This is an example of which element of observational learning?
Bandura concluded that there were _____ elements of observational learning.
Bandura conducted some of his research to study:
possible links between children's exposure to violence on television and aggressive behavior toward others
Research suggests that once people learn something:
it is always present somewhere in memory
Which of the following individuals believed that cognition was an important part of behavior?
Martin Seligman
The mental events that take place inside a person's mind while behaving are known as:
Kohler's idea of animal insight was controversial because:
other researchers, like Thorndike, did not believe that animals demonstrated that trait
Tolman and Köhler were:
Gestalt psychologists
Anna's mother scolds her for lying. Anna's mother is using:
punishment by application
Which of the following would be considered negative reinforcement?
taking an aspirin when you have a headache
Fishing is an example of an activity with a:
variable interval schedule of reinforcement
Animals' tendency to revert to genetically controlled patterns is:
instinctive drift
The Brelands determined that most Skinnerian behaviorists made the false assumption that:
all responses are equally able to be conditioned to any stimulus
Theo gets excited whenever he finds a quarter lying on the ground outside. While walking home from school one day, Theo noticed a shiny round object lying on the sidewalk and became very excited. He soon realized that the object was a bottle cap and his excitement quickly dissipated. Which of the following concepts is demonstrated in this example?
stimulus generalization
After passing his chemistry exam, Tito was told by his parents that he would be able to have access to the family car for a week. Tito's parents' are using ________.
positive reinforcement
Shortly after eating a piece of his great aunt's famous coconut cake, which he's had many times, Amad became very nauseous. Now, whenever his great aunt offers him a piece of cake, Amad quickly declines. Which of the following concepts best explains Amad's change in behavior?
conditioned taste aversion
Aida loves to sing for her family and friends but is extremely shy. In order to encourage Aida to sing again, which of the following is a primary reinforcement that Aida's mom might use?
promise her an ice cream cone when she sings
In toilet training a cat, "Lid Up, Seat Down" is known in operant conditioning as:
preparing the training arena
________ pioneered the empirical study of the basic principles of classical conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
Four-year-old Joshua reacts with anxiety to the sound of thunder. A chair slides across the wooden floor, making a sound similar to thunder. Joshua reacts with some slight anxiety. This is an example of:
stimulus generalization
In classical conditioning, the actual response involved in a CR and a UCR are the same. (For example, it might be salivation in both cases.) However, what makes that response (salivation) considered conditioned or unconditioned depends on:
whether the subject is responding to a UCS or a CS
Pavlov believed that the CS, due to its association close in time with the UCS, came to activate the same place in the brain originally activated by the UCS. What is this belief called?
stimulus substitution
An unlearned, involuntary response, such as salivating when presented with food, is:
a reflex