Identify the purposes of patient education
1. Maintenance and Promotion of health and illness prevention
2. Restoration of health
3. Coping with impaired functions
Three domains of learning
Cognitive Learning
Affective Learning
Psychomotor Learning
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Include patient teaching while performing routine nursing care
each interaction with a patient is an opportunity to teach
Patient education in healthcare:
- Maintenance and promotion of health and illness prevention
Nurse is a visible, competent resource for patient who want to improve their physical and psychological well-being.
Nurses provide information and skills that allow patients to assume healthier behaviors
Patient education in healthcare:
Restoration of health
Nurses learn to identify patients willingness to learn and motivate interest in learning.
-Injured or ill patients need information and skills to help them regain or maintain their levels of health.
Patient education in healthcare:
Coping with impaired functions
New knowledge and skills are often necessary for patients to continue ADLs and learn to cop with permanent health alterations.
Teaching
interactive process that promotes learning
Learning
acquisition of new knowledge, behaviors, skills
Learning objective
describes what the learner will be able o do after successful instruction
Cognitive learning
Is obtaining new information, applying the information, and evaluating the information. (ex. A nurse is teaching a 27-year-old gentleman how to adjust his insulin dosages based on his blood sugar results. What type of learning is this?clients learn the signs and symptoms or hypoglycemia and then verbalize when to notify the provider)
affective learning
involves feelings, beliefs, and ideals. ( a mother saying her child is ready to potty train, but after an educational session with a nurse about potty training the mother says that her child is not ready yet)
Psychomotor learning
integration of mental and muscular activity, ranging from perception of origination
Example:transferring patients from bed to chair or when clients practice preparing insulin injections
attentional set
the mental state that allows the leaner to focus on and comprehend a learning activity
motivation
force that acts on or within a person, causing the person to behave in a particular way
self-efficacy
a person perceived ability to successfully complete a task
Five Stages of Adaptation to illness and Grief
1. Denial or Disbelief
2. Anger
3.Bargaining
4. Resolution
5. Acceptance
Learning in children
Depends on maturation
-intellectual growth moves from the concrete to abstract as the child matures
- information presented to children needs to be understandable and based on the child's developmental stage
Adult learning
Self Directed learners
-become dependent in new learning situations
- the amount of information provided and the amount of time varies depending on the patients personal situation and readiness to learn .
Physical capability
to learn psychomotor skills, the physical characteristics are necessary:
Size, Strength, Coordination, and sensory acuity
The Nursing process requires
assessment of all sources to date to determine a patients personal health care needs
Teaching process focuses on
focuses on the patients learning needs and willingness and capability to learn
Assessment: Learning Needs
information or skills needed by the patient to person self care and to understand the implications of a health problem
Assessment: Learning Needs
patients experiences that influence the need to learn
Assessment: Learning Needs
information that the family members require
Assessment: Motivation to learn
behavior
Assessment: Motivation to learn
health beliefs and sociocultural background
Assessment: Motivation to learn
perception of severity and susceptibility of a health problem and the benefits and barriers to treatment
Assessment: Motivation to learn
perceived ability to perform behaviors
Assessment: Motivation to learn
desire to learn
Assessment: Motivation to learn
attitudes about providers
Assessment: Motivation to learn
learning style preference
Assessment: Ability to learn
Physical strength, movement, dexterity, and coordination
Assessment: Ability to learn
Sensory deficits
Assessment: Ability to learn
Reading level
Assessment: Ability to learn
Developmental level
Assessment: Ability to learn
cognitive function
Assessment: Ability to learn
Physical symptoms that interfere
Assessment: Teaching environment
Distractions or persistent noise
Assessment: Teaching environment
Comfort of the room
Assessment: Teaching environment
Physical symptoms that interfere
Assessment: Resources for learning
Willingness to have family memebers and others involved in the teaching plan
Assessment: Resources for learning
Family members perceptions and understanding of the illness and its implications
Assessment: Resources for learning
Willingness and ability to participate in care
Assessment: Resources for learning
Financial or material resources
Assessment: Resources for learning
teaching tools
Define Functional illiteracy
is the ability to read above a 5th grade level
Diagnosis: How the nurse would define the problem
The nurses assess information related to the patients ability and need to learn and interprets data and cluster defining characteristics to form diagnoses that reflect the patients specific learning needs. This ensures that teaching will be goal directed and individualized.
Planning: Teaching techniques that incorporate principles of learning
1. Setting Priorities
2. Timing
3. Organizing teaching material
Setting Priorities
Priorities should be based on the patients immediate needs (perception of what is most important, anxiety level, and amount of time available), nursing diagnoses, and the goals and outcomes established for the patient.
Timing
time the teaching for when a patient is most attentive, receptive, and alert and organize the activities to provide time for rest and teaching learning interactions
Organizing teaching material
organize into a logical sequence progessing rom simple to complex ideas
Telling
the nurse outlines the task the patient will perform and gives explicit instructions
most appropriate when preparing a patient for an emergency procedure
Participating
the nurse and aptient set objectives and become involved in the learning process together
Entrusting
provides the patient with the oppurtunity to manage self care
Reinforcement
using a stimulus that increases the probability for a response
One-on-one instruction
most common method of instruction
Group instruction
economical way to teach a number of patients at one time
Return demonstration
the chance to practice the skill
Analogies
supplement verbal instruction with familiar images
Role Play
people play themselves or someone else
Simulation
the nurse poses a pertinent problem or situation for patients to solve, which provides an opportunity to identify mistakes
Internal impulse that causes a person to take action is:
Motivation
The youngest age group to teach psychomotor skills
School age
Nursing Diagnoses that indicate a need for education
1. Deficient knowledge (affective, cognitive, psychomotor)
2. Ineffective health maintenance
3. Impaired home maintenance
4. Ineffective family therapeutic regimen management
5. Ineffective self-health management
6. Non-compliance (with medications)
A patient needs to learn to use a walker. Which domain is required for learning this skill?
Psychomotor domain
The nurse is planning to teach a patient about the importance of exercise. When is the best time for teaching to occur? (Select all that apply.)
When the patient's pain medications are working
Just before lunch, when the patient is most awake and alert
A patient newly diagnosed with cervical cancer is going home. The patient is avoiding discussion of her illness and postoperative orders. What is the nurse's best plan in teaching this patient?
Provide only the information that the patient needs to go home
The school nurse is about to teach a freshman-level high school health class about nutrition. What is the best instructional approach to ensure that the students meet the learning outcomes?
Develop topics for discussion that require problem solving
A nurse is going to teach a patient how to perform breast self-examination. Which behavioral objective does the nurse set to best measure the patient's ability to perform the examination?
The patient will perform breast self-examination correctly on herself before the end of the teaching session
A patient with chest pain is having an emergency cardiac catheterization. Which teaching approach does the nurse use in this situation?
Telling approach
The nurse is teaching a parenting class to a group of pregnant adolescents. The nurse pretends to be the baby's father, and the adolescent mother is asked to show how she would respond to the father if he gave her a can of beer. Which teaching approach did the nurse use?
Role play
An older adult is being started on a new antihypertensive medication. In teaching the patient about the medication, the nurse:
Allows the patient time to express himself or herself and ask questions.
A patient needs to learn how to administer a subcutaneous injection. Which of the following reflects that the patient is ready to learn?
Expressing the importance of learning the skill correctly
A patient who is hospitalized has just been diagnosed with diabetes. He is going to need to learn how to give himself injections. Which teaching method does the nurse use?
Demonstration,Demonstration is used to help patients learn psychomotor skills.
When a nurse is teaching a patient about how to administer an epinephrine injection in case of a severe allergic reaction, he or she tells the patient to hold the injection like a dart. Which of the following instructional methods did the nurse use?
Analogy
A nurse needs to teach a young woman newly diagnosed with asthma how to manage her disease. Which of the following topics does the nurse teach first?
How to use an inhaler during an asthma attack,
It is important to start with essential life-saving information when teaching people because they usually remember what you tell them first.
A nurse is teaching a group of young college-age women the importance of using sunscreen when going out in the sun. What type of content is the nurse providing?
Health promotion and illness prevention
A nurse is planning a teaching session about healthy nutrition with a group of children who are in first grade. The nurse determines that after the teaching session the children will be able to name three examples of foods that are fruits. This is an example of:
A learning objective.
A nurse is teaching a 27-year-old gentleman how to adjust his insulin dosages based on his blood sugar results. What type of learning is this?
Cognitive
A patient newly diagnosed with diabetes needs to learn how to use a glucometer. Use of a glucometer constitutes
Cognitive learning
During a teaching session, the nurse tells a patient with a recent neck injury that damage to the nerves is comparable to a water hose that has been pinched off. During this teaching session, the nurse is using the process of
Analogy