-creating or re-creating experience in mind
-form of stimulation that involves recalling pieces of information stored from experience and shaping those pieces into meaningful images
Visuomotor Behavior Rehearsal
-combines relaxation with imagery
-increases in neuromuscular activity
What are the three factors in the effectiveness of imagery?
1. nature of task - greatest performance impact on decision making and perception
2. skill level of performer - somewhat stronger for experienced
3. imaging ability - specific to vividness and control
What are three different theories that explain how imagery works?
1. Psychoneuromuscular theory
2. Symbolic learning theory
3. Bioinformational theory
4. Triple code model
5. Psychological skills hypothesis
Psychoneuromuscular theory
Imagery facilitates the learning of motor skills because of the nature of neuromuscular activity patters activated during imagery (vividly imagined events affect muscles in somewhat same was as physically practicing movement)
Symbolic learning theory
Imagery functions as a coding system to help people understand and acquire movement patterns
Bioinformational theory
Images made of stimulus propositions and response propositions
Stimulus propositions
Statements that describe specific features of scenario
Response propositions
Imager's response to the particular scenario
Triple code model
1. image - vividness of image itself
2. somatic response - imagination produces psychophysiological changes in the body
3. meaning - significance/meaning that image holds for the specific imager
Psychological skills hypothesis
-arousal regulation
-enhances feelings of confidence, increases concentration, reduces anxiety
What are five uses of imagery?
1. improve concentration
2. enhance motivation
3. build confidence
4. control emotional responses
5. acquire, practice, and correct sport skills
What are the two key components to imagery?
1. Vividness - all senses to make images as vivid and detailed as possible
2. Controllability - manipulate images to do what you want them to do
What are the guidelines for using imagery?
1. Practice in many settings
2. Aim for relaxed concentration
3. Realistic expectations
4. Vivid and controllable images
5. Apply to specific situations
6. Consider use of videotapes, DVDs, audiotapes
7. Include execution and outcomes
What was the youngest age at which youth athletes were able to show imagery ability similar to that of adults?