1. Use the decision-making model (page 196) presented in the chapter to map the decisions being made in these situations. Identify how, where, and why different decisions might be made. The following explanation is structured based on the decision making model: Define the problem (A), Analyze Alternatives (B), Make a Choice (C), Take Action (D), Evaluate Result (E). For each of the steps in the decision-making process, I will list each situation in order (1-4) stated in Case 9, W-115. A. Define the Problem

1. A woman decides not to wear her engagement ring to a job interview. 2. To combat rising healthcare costs, executives want to implement an anti-smoking and wellness campaign; employees are required to take health-risk assessments or face additional financial medical coverage costs. 3. An exceptional female salesperson learns that she is being paid 20% less than male employees that perform the same tasks. Should she address the wage discrimination with her superiors? 4. Wal-Mart executives publicly release employee annual bonus figures.

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B. Analyze Alternatives 1. She could wear her engagement ring and not be concerned about differential treatment. 2. CEOs can continue with the healthcare coverage premiums that were previous in place, where all employees pay an equal amount whether they smoke or not. 3. The female employee could demand to be paid the same amount as male salespersons, based on her performance. 4. Wal-Mart could have not disclosed the financials of their employees’ bonuses, keeping the information private would not publicly show their commitment to their employees and the way that they distribute revenues.

C. Make a Choice 1. The women interviewee decided to not wear her ring in fear of negative perception of her professional presence and assumptions of her personal life. 2. Scotts’ CEO made the choice by weighing the costs to the benefits. 3. The saleswoman made her choice even though it may have not addressed the ethical issues of wage discrimination. 4. Wal-Mart made their choice because it showed the positive impact the bonuses are for their stakeholders.

D. Take Action 1. The woman considered all alternatives and took action with her decision. 2. The CEOs took action by implementing the health and smoking programs. Although there we many alternatives, their action was focused on the individual’s choice: to participate or not. The decision then became that of the employee and not the “for the group.” 3. The saleswoman took action by allowing the wage difference to continue; or rather her choice was to take no action in order to keep the peace. 4. Wal-Mart took action by going public with the figures. This action is critiqued by the sheer numbers of dollars spread throughout the ranks.

E. Evaluate the Result 1. The woman may have got the job. 2. Scotts’ employees effectively became healthier in order to lower their premiums. 3. The saleswoman did not cause conflict. 4. Wal-Mart made an ethical choice to make their numbers public and let the world deal with it! 2. What are the issues involved in these situations? How are they best addressed by the decision makers? There are multiple issues highlighted between the four stories. There are ethical and moral issues, personal issues, financial issues, and publicity issues. Each decision maker addresses the issue at hand and has made their decision based on their ethical reasoning made nonprogrammed decisions. The issues were specific to that situation, so they made a decision based on the criteria pertinent to that situation, creating their own solution. 3. Find other decision-making examples that raise similar issues and quandaries. A man could possibly be discriminated against for wearing his wedding ring to a job interview.

The interviewer may judge his work ethic and assume that he will not be attentive to his work due to having a wife and/or family. They may feel that he will not be fully committed. A company may give employees who do some sort of activity—running, walking, working out—during work hours an additional hour on their lunch to do so. Those who do not wish to partake in some sort of additional activity must return to work after their allotted lunch time. This promotes a more active lifestyle and statistically better health for employees: employees will be healthier and possibly more productive. An employee may ask for a raise due to the amount of work they are required to do.

A company can then make a decision to accommodate the employees request and retain a happy employee. They may also not feel that additional compensation is cost effective or warranted, thus creating an unhappy and possibly negative conflict. Lastly, a company may decide to award bonuses to some employees and not to others. Often the employees who make the least amount of money do most of the work. These employees are not given bonuses and expected to maintain certain levels of production or risk losing their job.