1. What might a client's appearance include evidence of? Subjective distress Disturbance of thought or feeling Expressing behavior subconsciously

2. What should a therapist be aware of when taking note of a clients manner and content of talk? Slowing Incoherence Evasiveness Flights of ideas.

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3. Give examples of disorders of mood The experience of emotion described as fear spread thin, Anxiety is the commonest of experiences.

Abnormal frank excitement can be expressed by a client experiencing a mood disorder, when the behavior is inappropriate to the client's circumstances. Inappropriate behavior; excitement expressed, which is abnormal due to the clients current circumstances. Unreasonable exaltation may be encountered, a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion.

4. What does content of thought include? Disorder of thinking, the client experiences thought blocks – Difficulty maintaining a train of thought (Constantly interrupted) Retardation – Perceptibly slowed thinking process Acceleration – Incoherence regarding thought process, with the client feeling the to express f littering ideas in a almost manic manor Flights of ideas – Usually expressed in a n incoherent mumble of meaningless phrases, consisting of multiple associations.

5. What do ideas of reference involve? Ideas of reference involves disturbance of judgment and interpretation of reality whereby the client tends to relate external circumstances to himself and so comes to believe that almost everything that happens has some special meaning directed toward himself.

This leads to delusions in explanation of the otherwise incomprehensible picture of the world, which the client has developed.

6. Define; A. delusions B. Hallucinations C. Illusions A. Delusions, are a belief that is clearly false and that indicates and abnormality in the affected persons content of thought. The false belief is not accounted for by the persons cultural or religious background or his/her intelligence. The client experiencing this will hold on firmly to the belief regardless of the evidence to the contrary, the client is absolutely convinced that the delusion is real.

Delusion are symptoms of either medical, neurological or mental disorder. B. Hallucinations, are perceived through one of the senses and do not correspond to any stimulus in the outside world. Hallucinations are defined as perceptions in a conscious mind. C. Illusions, are simple perceptions, which although produced by an external stimulus are misinterpreted by the client. The information gathered by the eye is processed in the brain to give a perception that does not tally with the physical measurement of the stimulus source.

7. What is a Thought Block? Where a client's capacity to maintain a train of thought is constantly interrupted. A thought block is an abrupt interruption in the stream of thought describe as a profound sudden blankness of the mind. The client usually express flight of ideas as the disruption occurs. Language may seem difficult to understand, as it switches quickly from one idea another or long winded and very delayed and reaching its goal and or if words are inappropriately strung together resulting in gibberish.

8. State the categories of delusion.

Bizarre Delusion; A completely implauseable idea, a far from reality/ dream like delusion. Example, a person believes a part of their brain has been removed by aliens. A Non-Bizarre Delusion; Is an idea that is plausible but the content is mistaken, a possible but false delusion. Example, the person mistakenly believes that he/she is under constant police surveilliance. A Mood-Congruent Delusion; An delusion whoes content is consistant with a depressive or manic state (a state in which the person feels compelled to take on new projects, has lots of restless energy and usually requires little sleep.

Example, A person suffering with depression might believe that the world is ending, and the person with the manic state of mind might believe that she or he has special talents or abilities. A Mood- Neutral Delusion; A delusion whoes content is neither constsitant with either a depressed or manic state of mind, or is “mood neutral”. An example, Where a person believes that they are having thoughts inserted into the mind from an external force, person or group of people and these thoughts are not recognised as their own. This is called “Thought Insertion”.

9. What should a therapist explore in relation to memory?

What is retrieval? A process of accessing stored memories. When you are taking an exam, you need to be able to retrieve learned information from your memory in order to answer the test questions. There are four basic ways in which information can be pulled from long-term memory. The type of retrieval cues that are available can have an impact on how information is retrieved. A retrieval cue is a clue or prompt that is used to trigger the retrieval of long-term memory.

•Recall: This type of memory retrieval involves being able to access the information without being cued.

Answering a question on a fill-in-the-blank test is a good example of recall.

•Recollection: This type of memory retrieval involves reconstructing memory, often utilizing logical structures, partial memories, narratives or clues. For example, writing an answer on an essay exam often involves remembering bits on information, and then restructuring the remaining information based on these partial memories. •Recognition: This type of memory retrieval involves identifying information after experiencing it again. For example, taking a multiple-choice quiz requires that you recognize the correct answer out of a group of available answers.

Relearning: This type of memory retrieval involves relearning information that has been previously learned. This often makes it easier to remember and retrieve information in the future and can improve the strength of memories. 10. What should a constructive diagnosis include? The important aspects of the individuals experiences would have been explored, Psychological factors, Organic factors and Social factors which have results to the client's emotional problems. The conclusion will determine the recognition label given to the nature of the client's illness.