The spread of mass transit allowed large numbers of people to become commuters, and a growing middle class retreated to quieter, tree-lined "streetcar suburbs" from whence they could travel into the central city for business or entertainment.
Structures, usually six to eight stories tall, that were jammed tightly against one another to accommodate from twenty-four to thirty-two families per building; so-called because housing codes required a two-foot wide air shaft between buildings, giving the structure the appearance of a dumbbell when viewed from overhead.
Reception center in New York Harbor through which most European immigrants to America were processed from 1892 to 1954.
American Protective Association
Nativist, anti-Catholic secret society founded in Iowa in 1887 and active until the end of the century.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Passed in 1882, halted Chinese immigration to the United States.
William "Buffalo Bill" Cody
Rugged frontiersman and sharpshooter who created "Buffalo Bill's Wild West" traveling show, one of the touring extravaganzas that enjoyed incredible popularity during the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
The most popular-and diverse-form of theatrical entertainment in the late nineteenth century, vaudeville "variety" shows featured comedians, singers, musicians, blackface minstrels, farcical plays, animal acts, jugglers, gymnasts, dancers, mimes, and magicians, and appealed to all social classes and types.
Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted in 1858, New York's Central Park was the first example of a movement to create urban parks.
Dr. James Naismith
A physical education instructor who invented the game of Basketball in 1891.
Johns Hopkins University
University that opened in Baltimore in 1876, and set a new precedent by making graduate work its chief concern.
Movement that emphasized an imposition of standards, licensing of practitioners, and accreditation of professional schools.
Application of Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection to society; used the concept of the "survival of the fittest'' to justify class distinctions and to explain poverty.
Englishman who was the first major prophet of Social Darwinism and an important influence on American thought, arguing that human society and institutions, like organisms, passed through the process of natural selection; coined the phrase "survival of the fittest."
William Graham Sumner
Darwin's chief academic disciple, whose most lasting contribution, made in his book Folkways (1907), was to argue that forms of societal organization such as democracy or aristocracy were set by the working of tradition, or the customs of a community, and not by reason or natural laws.
Lester Frank Ward
Major philosopher of Reform Darwinism, who argued in his book Dynamic Sociology (1883) that people, unlike animals, had minds that could shape social evolution.
Philosophical principle, first expressed by William James, that expressed the evolutionary idea that truth arose from the testing of new ideas, the value of which lay in their practical consequences.
Professor of philosophy and psychology who first set forth in mature form the philosophical principle of pragmatism in his book Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking.
The chief philosopher of pragmatism after William James, who preferred the term "instrumentalism," by which he meant that ideas were instruments for action, especially for social reform.
Sarah Orne Jewett
Writer whose backward-looking and affectionate creative vision, as in the short story collection The Country of the Pointed Firs (1896), expressed the nostalgia of people moving from a rural to an urban culture that characterized the local color movement.
George Washington Cable
Writer who exploited the local color of the Louisiana Creoles and Cajuns in Old Creole Days (1879), The Grandissimes (1880), and other books.
Joel Chandler Harris
A newsman and columnist who wove authentic African-American folk tales into the unforgettable stories of Uncle Remus, gathered first in Uncle Remus: His Songs and His Sayings (1880).
Samuel Langhorne Clemens
Known as Mark Twain, the best of the local colorists, and the first great American writer born and raised west of the Appalachians; books included Innocents Abroad (1869), The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), Life on the Mississippi (1883), and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884).
A new literary school in the 1890s that spring from realism, made up of young literary rebels who imported scientific determinism into literature, viewing people as part of the animal world, prey to natural forces and internal drives without control or full knowledge of them.
Writer associated with the literary naturalism movement, whose books Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893) and The Red Badge of Courage (1895) portrayed people caught up in environmental situations beyond their control.
A naturalists who achieved a degree of popular success with his adventure stories The Call of the Wild (1903) and The Sea Wolf (1904), celebrating the triumph of brute force and the will to survive.
A naturalist whose books, such as Sister Carrie (1900), The Financier (1912), and The Titan (1914), shocked the genteel public by presenting protagonists who sinned without remorse and without punishment.
A California printer, journalist, and influential activist whose ideas about taxes and reform, expressed in Progress and Poverty (1879), were widely propagated.
Concept of taxing only landowners as a remedy for poverty, promulgated by Henry George in Progress and Poverty (1879).
Henry Demerest Lloyd
A journalist and freelance writer who addressed the issue of industrial monopolies in his best-known book, Wealth Against Commonwealth (1894), arguing that the key to progress was cooperation rather than competition.
Social critic who strove to make economics more an evolutionary or historical science; his best-known work, The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), was an examination of the pecuniary values of the middle classes.
Phrase referring to extravagant spending to raise social standing, coined by Thorstein Veblen in The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899).
Preached by liberal Protestant clergymen in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; advocated the application of Christian principles to social problems generated by industrialization.
Church leader and religious reformer who preached that true Christianity lies not in rituals, dogmas, or even in the mystical experience of God, but in the principle that "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself."
The acknowledged intellectual leader of the social gospel movement who wrote Christianity and the Social Crisis (1907) and other works that developed a theological basis for the movement in the Kingdom of God.
Houses staffed mainly by idealistic middle class young people, a majority of them college-trained women, that were a product of the late nineteenth-century movement to offer a broad array of social services in urban immigrant neighborhoods.
Activist and co-founder of one of the best known settlement houses, Hull House in Chicago (1889), and recipient of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize for her work in the peace movement.
One of hundreds of settlement houses that operated by the early twentieth century, founded by the activists Jane Addams and Ellen Starr in Chicago in 1889.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Feminist who founded the National Woman Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony to promote a women's suffrage amendment to the Constitution.
Susan B. Anthony
A seasoned veteran of the women's rights movement who demanded that the Fourteenth Amendment guarantee the vote for women as well as black males.
substantive due process
Principle allowing courts to review the substance of an action, enabling judges to overturn laws that deprived persons of property to an unreasonable degree, and thereby violated due process.
liberty of contract
Defined as being within the liberties protected by the due-process clause of the Fourteenth Amendment; when it came to labor laws, this translated into an employee's "liberty" to contract for work under the most oppressive conditions without interference from the state.
In 1882, Congress passed legislation to exclude immigrants form
The implications of social Darwinism included
a belief in the progress of human societies.
"Theory of the leisure class" and "conspicuous consumption" were ideas of
Before 1917, states adopting universal women's suffrage were in the
For recreation, the urban working class preferred
going to saloons and dance halls
Women were first able to vote in 1867 in
territory of Wyoming
The Salvation Army was all of the following, except:
an attempt to reach the urban working classes
Jack London, Theodore Dreiser, and Stephen Crane were
An important new trend in higher education after the Civil War was
the development of varied curriculum
Ellis Island was best known as the
point of entry for immigrants from Europe