Associative Learning
Definition: learning that certain evetns occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)
Researchers: Aristotle, John Locke, David Hume
Example: smell fresh cookies, eat and are satisfied, the next time you smell fresh cookies you will expect eating them will satisfy you again
Classical Conditioning
Definition: learn to associate two stimuli and thus anticipate events
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: lightning and thunder leads to lightning and anticipation of thunder with wincing
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Learning
a relatively permanent change in an oranges behavior due to experience
(UR)
Definition: in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the US such as salivation when food is in the mouth
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: salivation in mouth due to food was unlearned
(US)
Definition: in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally (naturally and automatically) triggers a response
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: food in mouth automatically triggers the salivary reflex
(CR)
Definition: in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: salivation in response to the tone was conditioned upon the dog learning to associate tone with food
(CS)
Definition: in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after assocation with a US, comes to trigger a conditioned response
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: the previously neutral tone stimulus that now triggered the conditional salivation
Acquisition
Definition: in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
Researcher: Michael Tirrell (1990)
Example: girlfriend liked onions so onions became associated with kissing and onion breath began to send tingles up his spine and arouse him
Higher-Order Conditioning
Definition: a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: animal that has learned tone predicts food might then learn that light predicts tone and respond to the light alone
Extinction
Definition: the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when a US does not follow a CS; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: tone sounded but no food causes salivation to stop
Spontaneous Recovery
Definition: the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: pause of several house until next tone caused spontaneous reappearing of salivation to the tone
Generalization
Definition: the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses
Researcher: Ivan Pavlov
Example: little Albert was conditioned to be afraid of the white rat and went on to generalize the fear to anything white, furry, or four-legged
Discrimination
unjustifiable negative behavior towards a group and its members
Respondent Behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; Skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning.
Operant Conditioning
Definition: learn to associate a response (our behavior) and its consequence and thus repeat acts followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results
Researcher: B.F. Skinner
Example: if rewarded continue, if punished will not continue
Operant Behavior
Operant conditioning is a type of learning where behavior is controlled by consequences. Key concepts in operant conditioning are positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment.
law of effect
Definition: Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
operant chamber
Definition: in operant conditioning research, a chamber (Skinner's box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animals rate of bar pressing or key pressing
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: used to explore the precise conditions that foster efficient and enduring learning
Learning
Shaping
Definition: an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforceres guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: reward responses close to desired behavior and ignore others to shape complex behaviors
Reinforcer
Definition: in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
Positive Reinforcement
Definition: increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: giving you kids an allowance each week if they make their bed every day increases the frequency of the bed making because they want the allowance
Negative Reinforcement
Definition: increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus that when removed after a response, strengthens the response
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: nagging your kids and not stopping until they make their beds increases the frequency of the bed making because they want your nagging to stop
Primary Reinforcer
Definition: an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
Conditioned Reinforcer
Definition: a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
Continuous Reinforcement
Definition: reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
Partial Reinforcement
Definition: reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquistion of a response but much greater resistance to extinction that oes continuous reinforcement
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
Definition: reinforces a behavior after a set number of responses
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: maid gets a 15 minute break after cleaning 3 rooms
Variable-ratio schedule
Definition: reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: a charity makes an average of ten phone calls for every donation it recieves
fixed interval schedule
Definition: reinforces a response only after a specific time has elasped
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: getting allowance every sunday
Variable Interval Schedule
Definition: reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Example: watching and seeing shooting stars on a dark night
latent learning
Definition: learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
intrinsic motivation
Definition: a desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
extrinsic motivation
Definition: a desire to perform a behavior to recieve promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
operant behavior
Definition: behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
operant conditioning
Definition: a type of learning in which the behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminshed if followed by a punisher
Researcher: B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
Study: N/A
observational learning
Definition: learning by observing others
Researcher: Albert Bandura (1961)
Study: N/A
mirror neurons
Definition: frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy
Researcher: Giacomo Rizzolatti (2002, 2006)
Study: makes emotions contagious such as yawning when others yawn or smiling when others smile
Behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2).
pro social behavior
Definition: positive, constructive, helpful behavior
Researcher: Albert Bandura (1961)
Example: encouraging your children to read by reading to them and surrounding them with books and people that read
antisocial effects
Definition: possible response of observational learning
Researcher: Albert Bandura (1961)
Example: watch abusive parents and become abusive when you are a parent OR kids watching tv learn bad habits and get idea that violence is acceptable
Modeling
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.