association learning
learning that certain events occur together. Events may be two stimuli
classical conditioning
Pavlov; type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. Natural stimulus taht signals on unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus (US)
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operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
behaviorism
the view that psychology 1. should be an objective science that 2.studies behavior without refrence to mental processes
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
in classical conditioning, stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically triggers a response
unconditioned response (UCR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditionally stimulus
conditioned response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the unlearned , naturally occurring response to the unconditionally stimulus (UCS)
conditioned stimulus (CS)
in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS), come to trigger a conditioned response
neutral stimulus (NS)
stimulus which initially produces no specific response other that focusing attention
acquisition
initial stage in classical conditioning, the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. in operant conditioning the strengthening of a reinforced response
contingency
an event that may occur but that is not likely or intended; a possibility
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; ie classical conditioning
law of effect
Thorndike; principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequence become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforces guide behavior toward closer and closer approximates of a desired goal
deprivation vs satiation
planning for a state of mind deprivation can increase the effectiveness of a reinforcement
reinforcement
in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
primary reinforcer
an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
conditioned reinforcer
a stimulus that gains it's reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer, also known as secondary reinforcers
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
partial reinforcement
reinforcing a response only part the rime, results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction that does continuous reinforcement
fixed-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable times
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of repsnses
variable-ration schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of a responses
punishment
decreases behavior, opposite to that of a reinforcement
latent learning
learning that occurs but isn't apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
over justification effect
effect of promising a reward for doing what one was already likes to do
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake to be effective
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so
negative reinforcement
Removal of a stimulus after a particular response to increase the likelihood that the response will recure
aversion therapy
uses principle from behavioral psychology to help reduce or eliminate unwanted behavior
SIBIS
self injuring behavior inhibiting systems an apparatus used as a treatment method to stop self harm