1. Anatomy is the study of the structure and shape of body and parts, while physiology is the study of how the body work and function, their relationship is seen for example in the heart, there are two valves (anatomy) and these two valves help the heart pump blood.
2. The atom is the smallest particle of an element. An example is carbon ( C ) which is the building block of life. A group of atoms could form for example, a water molecule (H2O ) which is two or more atoms joined together and these molecules if larger in size becomes macromolecules which are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and are also known as nutrients which are parts of the organelles such as a nucleus which are parts of cells with specific functions and they make up the cell and helps perform functions such as destroying harmful substances such as white blood cells.
Other types of cells join together to form tissues, which perform a function such as epithelia for a larger organ such as skin. Another example is the nervous tissue for the brain. Organs make up organ systems such as the cardiovascular system for the heart, and an organ system is a group of organs which work collectively to carry out a process in the organism, which are made up of many organ systems which may be part of a larger population (such of as humans).
3. The eleven organ systems include the cardiovascular system, the digestive system, the endocrine system, the immune system, the integumentary system, lymphatic system, the musculoskeletal system, the nervous system, the respiratory system, the reproductive system, and the urinary system. The integumentary system is the largest system by mass, it forms the external body covering, protects deeper tissue and produces Vitamin D, as well as serves as the location of cutaneous nerve receptors. Its parts include skin. The skeletal system protects and supports body organs, provides muscle attachment for movement, is the site of blood cell formation and stores minerals. It is made up of cartilage, joints and bones.
The primary function of the muscular system, made up of skeletal muscles, is that it allows for movement and posture as well as produces heat. The nervous system is a control system which responds to internal/external changes by activating muscles and lands, made up of the brain, sensory receptor, spinal cord and nerves. The endocrine system secrets regulatory hormones for growth, reproduction and metabolism. It is made up the pinal glad, the pituitary gland, the thyroid gland, the thymus gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testes (male) and ovary (female) The cardiovascular system transports materials via blood, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and wastes. This includes the heart and blood vessels.
The lymphatic gland returns fluids to blood vessels and disposes of debris, and is involved in the immune system. This includes the thoracic duet, the lymph nodes, and the lymphatic vessels. The respiratory system keeps the blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. This system is made up of the nasal cavity, the pharynx, the larynx, the trachea, the bronchus and the left lung.
The digestive system breaks down food and allows for nutrient absorption into blood, made up of the oral cavity, the esophagus, the stomach, small and large intestines, rectum and anus. The urinary system eliminates wastes and maintains acid-base balance as well as regulates water and electrolytes. This is made up of the kidney, the ureter, the urinary bladder and the urethra. Finally the reproductive system allows for the production of offspring and in the males it includes the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, the vas deferens, the testis, scrotum and penis. For females this includes the mammary glands, the uterine tube, the uterus and the vagina.
4. The six life processes that distinguish living from non-living organisms include digestion, growth, metabolism (anabolism and catabolism), movement, reproduction and responsiveness.
5. The five environmental needs required for life includes nutrients, water, temperature, pressure, oxygen.
6. Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment regulated by negative feedback. When receptors sense that there is a change in the environment, the control center determines a response. An example would be that when I sweat when it is hot because my body wants to maintain my temperature at 98.6F and sweating helps my body cool down.
7. Anatomical position means that the body is standing or either lying down with the feet together, the arms to the side, with the head, eyes and palms of hand facing forwards so that the viewer could see everything.
8. Superior (or cranial/cephalad) means that it is towards the upper part of the structure or body, such as the head is superior to the body. The inferior (or caudal) means the lower part of the structure or body, such as the naval is inferior to the breastbone. The anterior (or ventra) means towards the front, the posterior (dorsal) means to the backside of the body, or behind and the medial means towards the midline of the body, or inner side. The breastbone is anterior to the spine, the heart is posterior to the breastbone and the heart is medial to the arms.
The lateral means away from the midline, or on the outer side of. The intermediate means between a medial or lateral surface, and the proximal means close to the origin of the body or to a point of attachment. The arms are lateral to the chest, the armpit is intermediate between the breastbone and shoulder, the elbow is proximal to the waist. Distal means farther from the origin of a body, such as a hand is distal from the body, a superficial is exterior, and deep is internal. The skin is superficial from the skeleton and the heart is deep to the rib cage.
9. The anterior landmarks include the nasal, oral, cervical, acromial, thoracic, brachial, antecubital, abdominal, umbilical, carpal, digital, pubic, pateliar, crural (leg), tarsal, orbital, buccal, sternal, axillary, pelvic, coxal, inguinal, fermoral, and fibular. The posterior landmarks include the cephalic, the occipital, deltoid, scapular, vertebra, lumbar, sacral, gluteal, popliteal, sural, and the femoral.
10. The three major body sections/cuts include the midsagittal cut which divides the body into equal right and left positions. The sagittal cut divides the body into right and left positions. The frontal cut divides the body into anterior and posterior position. The transverse cut divides the body into superior and inferior positions.
11. The dorsal cavity encases the cranial (brain) and vertebral (spinal cord) cavities. The ventral cavity contains the thoracic (heart - pericardial and lungs - pleural) which is separated by the diaphragm to the abdominopelvic cavity, which houses the abdominal (contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver and other viscera organs) and pelvic cavities (bladder, reproductive organs and rectum).
12. The diaphragm, located between the thoracic and the abdominopelvic cavities, is the muscle responsible for respiration, and contracts and expands due to inhalation, creating a vacuum which pulls air into lungs.
13. The four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity are the right upper, the left upper, the right lower and the left lower. The nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity include the right hypochondriac (liver, gall bladder, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon, right kidney) the epigastric (the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon, right and left adrenal glands, pancreas, right and left kidneys, right and left ureters, spleen) the left hypochondriac (the stomach, the tip of liver, the tail of pancreas, the small intestines, transverse colon, descending colon, pancreas, left kidney, spleen) the right lumber (tip of liver, gall bladder, small intestine, ascending colon, right kidney) the umbilical (stomach, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon, pancreas, right and left kidneys, right and left ureters) the left lumber (small intestine descending colon, tip of left kidney.) the right iliac (small intestine, appendix, cecum, and ascending colon, F-right ovary, right fallopian tube) the hypogastric (small intestine, sigmoid colon, rectum, right and left ureter, urinary bladder, F-uterus, right and left ovaries, right and left fallopian tubes, M-vas deferens, seminal vesicle, prostate) and the left iliac (small intestine, descending colon sigmoid colon, F-left ovary, left Fallopian tube)
14. The parietal serosa covers the body walls while the visceral serosa covers the internal organs and is separated from the parietal serosa by the serous fluid. The thoracic cavity is divided into pleural cavities, with the pleural cavities each housing a lung with the membrane on the surface being the visceral pleura, the membrane lining the cavity being the parietal pleura, the pericardial cavity enclosing the heart (w/ the membrane on the surface of the heart being the visceral pericardium, and the membrane that lines the cavity called the parietal pericardium) and the peritoneal cavity lines the abdominal walls and acts as a cover for organs and is filled with serous fluid, with the membrane on the surface being the visceral peritoneum, and the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity being the parietal peritoneum.
15. In the ventral body cavity, the serous fluid is a membrane that separates the parietal and visceral serosae for lubrication purposes.