The policy of affirmative action[1] should be abolished in the Unites States as this practice is not making good to US society on its policy against discrimination.

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It is in effect violating what it is supposed to protect and could lead to other worse consequences like creating crippling effect upon minority groups because of its obvious message of inferiority, reverse racism[2], lowering  standards of accountability hence rewarding race instead of hard work,  showing that the people hired through affirmative action can lead to unqualified workers, leading to create a true `color blind`  society, condescending to minorities about their need for affirmative action, demeaning the achievement of minorities, by attributing their success due to affirmative action and not hard work.

Affirmative action[3] has a crippling effect upon minority groups because of its obvious message of inferiority.   Affirmative action[4] assumes that minority groups are of inferiority quality and hence they should be taken care of and they should not be allowed to compete in the market place. It is actually unfair to these minorities because it has actually described them as being unable to fend for them selves within the business/work environment.

Not only that it is demeaning to minorities but it also unfair to white males that rely on their skill rather then their color. Therefore, further sustaining the policy is simply an act lack of common sense and realization on how it is to live in free economy where best must come out as a result of one’s freedom to interact.

America is said to be the land of opportunities where there is freedom to compete and to excel and reach one’s potential.

The reward of such freedom to excel to one’s own could only come from a system that encourages initiative and freedom to move or go into a career path where each one is being led to and that that path must be one that challenges individual’s competitive spirit and not cuddles some minorities, who are assumed and declared inferior before the fights.

Another argument in support of this paper’s thesis is that affirmative action[5] is a reverse racism[6] but it still racism.   While the concept of affirmative action[7] apparently aims to reduce racism by mandating that females and/or non-whites be given preference in employment hiring and college admission, the same is actually producing racism in reverse and therefore defeating the purpose for which it was set up as policy.

It is therefore an often obvious discrimination against whites and/or males, often against white males since choosing their opposites, meaning the females and/or non-whites, is automatically not choosing the first.

To require something that must be done before applying a criterion other than color or sex is point-blank discrimination which does not need much thought.  It may be argued that discrimination takes the attitude of pre-judgment without the benefits of hearing the other side and such practice is what is happening by not giving the side of the whites and/or males to air their side of the equation.

Supporters of "affirmative action"[8] may argue that it is a way of making the playing field fair because of the dominance of the white males and this may closed off opportunities to females and/or non-whites. But looking at the issue deeper would simply reveal the truth that is extremely shallow and prejudiced to hire someone or accept someone into college based randomly on gender and/or race.

To allow affirmative action[9] is to argue that the US government might as well allow homosexuals and Jews and Catholics to benefit from affirmative action since one basis is that these groups have also been oppressed by society. What sarcasm to realize the point?

It may be argued that there are sexist/racist employers[10]; hence the applicants must be protected. In answer it may counter argued that it would also a question by the applicant of why would he or want to work for an employer who is going to judge him/her based on race or gender?

Would it not be a potential way for that employee to experience something that is against one’s nature to excel in work because of color or sex and not because of skills?

Having therefore an employer that is so ignorant as to judge an employee based on biological circumstances (race, gender, sexual orientation) is also hard to believe because seldom or no management theory will tell him  or her to do that. It goes without saying that the person shouldn't even be an employer in the first place.

Forcing the employer therefore to hire based on racial/gender quotas, which is a violation of basic management theories may only cause the employer to resent particular employees even more particularly if the employees are incompetent.

The effects in terms of motivation and performance would simply be easily understood and what else would be the effects. This will be a case of a bigoted employer treating the employee with disdain and the same will really be reflected within their work environment, thus causing unnecessary wastage of resources. Wastage of resource could also imply low standards of accountability, hence the next argument.

Affirmative action[11] lowers standards of accountability.  To support this, it may be posited that affirmative action can lead to anti motivational attitudes, which creates lack of incentive to do their best. Rewarding race instead of hard work is simply against the basic principles of management theories.

Management theories[12] support rewarding employees based on performance hence this affirmative action[13] is an obvious contradiction. Management theories involve motivation theories.

Under the expectancy theory of motivation, Vroom argues that as person constantly predicts his or her likely futures, he or she create expectations about future events and if such things would appear reasonably likely and attractive, that person knows how to get there and he or believes he or she can 'make the difference' then this will motivate his or her to act to make this future come true.[14]

By analyzing the meaning of this theory, what is clear is the clear prediction of one’s possible future and the reasonability of predicted future that will lead him or her to move into that direction with expectation, with direction and with motivation.

  To say that a minority would have the expectation of being preferred over a white man on the basis of color or sex would contradict this motivation theory because the characteristic of being black or being a woman is most of the time a matter of choice but of the genes. The white man would just argue then, why would I have to study well and improve my skill well when I only have to be a minority to be preferred.

[1] Sterba  (2004)  Affirmative Action around the World: An Empirical Study; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 57, 2004

[2] Hall, G.  Fighting Racism: Selected Writings; International Publishers, 1985

[3] Sterba  (2004)  Affirmative Action around the World: An Empirical Study; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 57, 2004

[4] Mellott (2006)The Diversity Rationale for Affirmative Action in Employment after Grutter: The Case for Containment; William and Mary Law Review, Vol. 48, 2006

[5] Sterba  (2004)  Affirmative Action around the World: An Empirical Study; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 57, 2004

[6] Fox, H.  When Race Breaks out: Conversations about Race and Racism in College Classrooms; ; Peter Lang, 2001

[7] Sterba  (2004)  Affirmative Action around the World: An Empirical Study; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 57, 2004

[8] Sterba  (2004)  Affirmative Action around the World: An Empirical Study; Stanford Law Review, Vol. 57, 2004