Industrial robots used in manufacturing lines used to be the most common form of robots, but that has recently been replaced by consumer robots cleaning floors and mowing lawns. The advantages Of Industrial Robots are: ; Quality - Robots have the capacity to drastically improve product quality when compared to humans. Applications are performed with precision and mass repeatability every time. This level of consistency can be hard to achieve any other way. ; Production - With robots speeds increase, which directly increases the rate of production.

Because boots have the ability to work at a constant speed without pausing for breaks, sleep, holidays, they have the potential to produce more than a human worker. ;Safety - Robots increase workplace safety as they're less likely to cause accidents. Workers are moved to other roles, so they no longer have to perform dangerous applications in hazardous settings. ; Savings Greater worker safety leads to financial savings. There are fewer healthcare and insurance concerns for employers. Robots also offer tireless performance which saves valuable time.

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Their movements are always exact, so less eternal is wasted resulting in the company being much more efficient. There are also limitations to industrial robots which include: ; Expenses - The starting investment in robots is big and expensive. The cost of automation should be calculated by the business' greater financial budget Regular maintenance needs can have a financial toll as well. ;Return on investment Adding industrial robots does not guarantee results. If companies don't plan they can have difficulty achieving the maximum output ;Expertise - Employees will require training in programming the new robotic equipment.

This normally takes time and more financial output as workers will make mistakes as familiarization with the robots takes a while. ; Safety - Robots may protect worker from some hazards, but in the meantime, their very presence can create other safety problems. These new dangers must be taken into consideration. ; have written about the pros and cons of industrial robots alone. However robots are only one part of the manufacturing of products. Something else that can enhance productivity, schedules, organizing and traceability is a flexible manufacturing system (FM).

FM is an arrangement of machines interconnected by a transport system. The transport system carries work to the machines on pallets so that work-machine registration is accurate, rapid and automatic. A computer controls both the machines and transport systems. It's also a system that is flexible as it allows it to react to predicted/ unpredicted changes. This flexibility is generally considered to fall into two categories, which both contain numerous subcategories. The first category is machine flexibility which covers the ability to produce new product types, hanger the order of operations to be performed on a part.

The second category is called routing flexibility, which is the ability to use multiple machines to perform the same operation on a part, as well as the ability to accommodate large-scale changes such as in volume, capacity and/or capability. The main advantages of a FM are its high flexibility in managing manufacturing resources like time and effort in order to manufacture a new product. The best application of an FM is found in the production of small sets of products like those from a mass production.

Flexibility in manufacturing means the ability to deal with slightly or greatly mixed parts, to allow variation in parts assembly and variations in process sequence, change the production volume and change the design of certain products being manufactured. FM will definitely increase productivity gains as it has reduced manufacturing times, lower unit costs, greater labor productivity, more efficiency, better quality, more system reliability and more adaptable to CAD/CAM operations. All the above explain why a FM produces productivity gains.

Fame's deploy a range of processing machines such as milling, turning, grinding, boring etc in factories. For example a car factory that employs a FM would have the car body shell at the start of the production line and a finished car at the end, with different processes happening along the way. All this would be connected by a loading and unloading system. Palpitating is similar to this as it involves loading or unloading material onto pallets. For example the newspaper industry use robots like Cincinnati Millrace Robot to palliative advertising inserts for a newspaper.

Also all these interlocking systems can coordinate work schedules as a computer controls the whole system and knows what each cell of the production line is doing so components are less likely to be lost and schedules can be set for when the product will be completely manufactured. Each cell's time to do its job can be set so the after each cell has completed its job it can move straight over to another job. This decreases the time wasted. For example if a company is manufacturing car wheels then each cell can do all the different processes on it in one go while the wheel stays stationary.

If it doesn't stay stationary it can still be moved by robots and placed on the next phase of the process which is much quicker. Also robots are much better to use when moving parts around as they can lift heavy parts with ease. Robots: won't break their backs, take long, don't wear steel toe capped boots, wont injure themselves. Where-as humans will do all the above. Robots will also handle parts with delicacy and not break delicate objects unlike humans who will break them. Also robots can hold very hot objects and move them about as they don't react to hot temperatures and don't get burnt.

Humans on the other hand will have to wear protective clothing which costs the company more money and also have to spend more on health and safety. In other factories the wheel will travel all around the factory which is more time consuming. FM will increase productivity and limit waste. Overall FM have greatly improved customer satisfaction, efficiency, reduced waste, reduced time consumption, reduced energy required and reduced cost per unit. However every system has its minor setbacks such as the cost to implement this system and the substantial overlapping required.