Many business- o-business models try to eliminate the middleman by using the Web to deliver products/services directly to their customers. By doing this they may be able to offer cheaper products and better customer service to their customers. The end result would be a differentiation between them and their competitors, increased market share, and increased customer loyalty. Products sold by e-businesses could be either traditional products, such as books and clothing, or digital products, such as songs, computer software, or electronic books.

E-commerce models are either an extension or revision of traditional business oodles, such as advertising model, or a new type of business model that is suitable for the Web implementation, such as info-mediate. Merchant, brokerage, advertising, mixed, info-mediate, subscription are the most popular e-commerce models. Merchant model: This model basically transfers the old retail model to the e- commerce world by using the Internet. There are different types of merchant models.

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The most common type of merchant model is similar to a traditional business model that sells goods and services over the Web. Amazon. Com is a good example of this type. An e-business similar to Amazon. Mom utilizes the services and technologies offered by the Web to sell products and services directly to the consumers. By offering good customer service and reasonable prices, these companies establish a brand on the Web. The merchant model Is also used by many traditional businesses to sell goods and services over the Internet.

Dell, Cisco systems, and Compact are popular examples. These companies eliminate the middleman by generating a portion of their total sale over the Web and by accessing difficult-Wreath customers. An example that uses this model is Amazon. Com Corporation. Brokerage model: The e-business brings the sellers and buyers together on the Web and collects a commission on the transactions by using this model. The best example of this type Is an online auction site such as eBay, glitteringly. Com which can generate additional revenue by selling banner advertisement on their sites. Advertising model: This model is an extension of traditional advertising media, such as television and radio. Search engines and directories such as Google and Yahoo provide contents (similar to radio and TV) and allow the users to access this content for free. By creating significant traffic, these e-businesses are able to charge Mixed model: This model generates revenue both from advertising and subscriptions. Internet service providers (Sips) such as America On-line (AOL), and Supervision generate revenue from advertising and their customers' subscription fees for Internet access.

Utility model:- The Utility Model is one of the 9 major business models used on the internet. It gets its name from utility companies like telephone, gas and electricity. What all these utility companies have in common is that they have a user pay-as-you-go model. They are metered services. Some internet genuineness use this utility model and operate a metered service. Other businesses which use the utility model include software companies. Customers are charged via the number of APS they download. Newspapers and magazines also use the utility model for their online articles.

Customers are charged per article they download. Info-mediate model: E-businesses that use this model collect information on consumers and businesses and then sell this information to interested parties for marketing purposes. For instance, bizarre. Com collect information related to the performance of other sites and sells this information to advertisers. Netters. Com provides free Internet access; in behavior of customers. This information is later sold to advertisers for direct marketing. Machines. Com offers free PC's to its customers for the same purpose. Subscription model: it is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to the product/service. Rather than selling products individually, a subscription sells periodic (monthly or yearly or seasonal) use or access to a product and service an e-business might sell digital products to its customers, by using this model. The Wall Street Journal and Consumer Reports are two examples. Secret. Mom, Jeaneries. Com is another example of this model that sells business news and analysis based on subscription. Courageous. Mom from NIT. INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER An ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a company which provides internet access to other companies or individuals. An ISP maintains connections to other networks and Sips, acting as a router for internet traffic between a customer's computer and any other machine also connected to the internet anywhere else in the world. TYPES OF Internet Service Provider is a company that you dial up to get on the Internet. There are basically four different kinds: 1. State owned BASS - servicing all of India except Iambi and Delhi.

Triple-play Broadband Services provided by ADDS and BEDS. Also providing internet services over GAPS, 36, as well as Wimpy. MINT - servicing Iambi and Delhi. Triple-play Broadband Services provided by ADDS under the "Trip-Band" brand. Also providing GAPS and G internet services. 2. Privately owned, nationwide Attract - GAPS & 36 Hathaway - Broadband over Cable Idea cellular - GAPS Reliance communications - ADDS, GAPS & 36, Metro-Ethernet, CDMA/EVE-DO, Wit-Max -rata DOTCOM - GAPS & 36 -rata Indices - ADDS, CDMA/EVE-DO, Metro-Ethernet, Wimpy ,GPO avoidance -

GAPS & 36 YOU Broadband & Cable India Limited (formerly YOU Telecoms) - Broadband over cable, GPO Airtime- ADDS, GAPS, G,GPO. 3. Privately owned, regional Beam Fiber - FAT, Hydrated Bangor Broadband Network Pet Ltd (BAN) - TEETH, Bangor Orate Cable - Broadband over Cable, Odious Next Broadband - OFTEN, Delhi-NCR Dreamt - Wireless Turbo Broadband, Callaghan Voodoo- Wireless Broadband Kananga (Himalaya Pradesh) Flyway Broadband Internet Services- Cuddlier Old Town,Tamil undue. Asinine Data Line - Broadband over Cable, Kraal Kappa Internet Services - Broadband over Wireless, Restaurants able Pet.

Ltd. - Broadband Over cable,Kola Touch Net-High Speed Boardinghouse's Fast Connecting India - Tripper Smarting Broadband Services Pet Ltd - Broadband Over cable,Iambi 4. Enterprise/Wholesale only - A virtual ISP (virtual Internet service provider, sometimes abbreviated as VISP or plus) is a company that offers Internet services under its own company or brand name, while actually using the equipment and facilities of another ISP to provide those services. A virtual ISP typically offers the all same services as a regular ISP, such as Web hosting, e-mail, newsgroup access, domain name provision, ND support.

A number of real Sips specialize in providing a virtual ISP setup on a local or wider geographic basis. Data Communications - Pan India Breath Airtime - Pan India Brat Sanchez Enigma - Pan India Reliance Communications - Pan India Avoidance India - Pan India Sift - Pan India GALILEE Earlier Types of internet connections Dial-up connections To get a dial-up connection, your computer will dial a phone number using your telephone line. Dial-up connections need a modem to connect to the internet and you pay for a call each time you dial-up.

Dial-up connections are really slow impaired to broadband, and are usually too slow for streaming video and making voice or video calls on the internet. If you want to do more than read web pages and send emails, you'll probably need a broadband connection. You cannot make a phone call while using internet. You have to connect every time whenever you want to use it. DSL dial-up, with the data still being transferred over conventional phone lines. To use DSL you need a specialized DSL modem that allows the phone line to transfer the high-frequency data from your computer's end.

You can make a call & simultaneously use the net. It is always ON service. Need not to connect every time. Broadband Broadband is a high-speed internet connection. Unlike dial-up, with broadband your phone line is not tied up. You can make a phone call and be on the internet at the same time. With broadband, you can watch live news and sport, download and share large files quickly and shop or bank online more easily. Fast speed compared to DSL & Dial up. Can be used with cable wires instead phone lines also. Cable As the name implies, cable Internet service is usually piped into a home via the "Cable TV cable.

The cable must go through a hub or router to properly send Internet signals, requiring in-home setup by the provider---unlike dial-up service, which can be more easily installed directly by the user. Cable provides a number of speeds based on price; however, even if a higher speed is purchased by the consumer, the connection may still be limited if the computer's internal Ethernet card is slow and outdated Satellite Internet: If cable or DSL aren't available in your area, or if the slow dial-up access speeds are not acceptable, consider using satellite internet.

The service is expensive and the data rate is not as fast as a direct line, but t is a good connectivity alternative if you live in an isolated location. Concept of internet topology Think of a topology as a network's virtual shape or structure. This shape does not necessarily correspond to the actual physical layout of the devices on the network. For example, the computers on a home LANA may be arranged in a circle in a family room, but it would be highly unlikely to find a ring topology there.

Network topologies are categorized into the following basic types: bus ring star tree mesh More complex networks can be built as hybrids of two or more of the above basic apologies. Bus Topology Bus networks (not to be confused with the system bus of a computer) use a common backbone to connect all devices. A single cable, the backbone functions as a shared communication medium that devices attach or tap into with an interface connector.

A device wanting to communicate with another device on the network sends a broadcast message onto the wire that all other devices see, but only the intended recipient actually accepts and processes the message. Ethernet bus topologies are relatively easy to install and don't require much cabling compared to the alternatives. Abase-2 ("Thinner") and bases-5 ("Thicken") both were popular Ethernet cabling options many years ago for bus topologies. However, bus networks work best with a limited number of devices. If more than a few dozen computers are added to a network bus, performance problems will likely result.

In addition, if the backbone cable fails, the entire network effectively becomes unusable. Illustration - or bases-5 Ethernet uses a single communication backbone for all devices. Ring Topology In a ring network, every device has exactly two neighbors for communication purposes. All messages travel through a ring in the same direction (either "clockwise" or "counterclockwise"). A failure in any cable or device breaks the loop and can take down the entire network. To implement a ring network, one typically uses FIDE, SONNET, or Token Ring technology. Ring topologies are found in some office buildings or school campuses.

Illustration - This diagram illustrates the ring network topology. A ring topology such as FIDE or SONNET sends messages clockwise or counterclockwise through the shared link. Star Topology Many home networks use the star topology. A star network features a central injection point called a "hub node" that may be a network hub, switch or router. Devices typically connect to the hub with Unshielded Twisted Pair (HTTP) Ethernet. Compared to the bus topology, a star network generally requires more cable, but a failure in any star network cable will only take down one computer's network access and not the entire LANA. If the hub fails, however, the entire network also fails. ) This diagram illustrates the star network topology. A star topology typically uses a network hub or switch and is common in home networks. Tree Topology Alternatively referred to as a star bus topology, tree topology is one of the most moon network setups that is similar to a bus topology and a star topology. A tree topology connects multiple star networks to other star networks. Below is a visual example of a simple computer setup on a network using the star topology.

In the above example picture, if the main cable or trunk between each of the two star topology networks failed, those networks would be unable to communicate with each other. However, computers on the same star topology would still be able to communicate with each other. Mesh Topology A network setup where each computer and network device is interconnected with en another, allowing for most transmissions to be distributed, even if one of the connections go down. This topology is not commonly used for most computer networks as it is difficult and expensive to have redundant connection to every computer.

A mesh network in which every device connects to every other is called a full mesh. Illustration - This diagram illustrates the mesh network topology. A mesh topology provides redundant communication paths between some or all devices (partial or full mesh). Summary Topologies remain an important part of network design theory. You can probably lid a home or small business computer network without understanding the standard topologies gives you a better understanding of important networking concepts like hubs, broadcasts, and routes.

E-commerce working introduction to public & private information E- Govern meet As e-commerce matures and its tools and applications improve, greater attention is given to its use to improve the business of public institutions and governments (country, state, county, city, etc). E-government is the use of Internet technology in general and e-commerce in particular to deliver information and public services to tizzies, business partners and suppliers, and those working in the public sector. It is also an efficient way of conducting business transactions with citizens and businesses and within the governments themselves.

E-government can make government more transparent to citizens and improve delivery of public services. E- government applications can be divided into three major categories: government-to- citizens (GAG), government-to-business (EBB), and government-to government (GAG). Government agencies are increasingly using the Internet to provide various services to citizens. An example would be electronic benefits transfer (EST), used in USA an UK in which government transfers Social Security, pension, and other benefits directly to recipients' bank accounts or to smart cards.

Governments also are using the Internet to conduct business with businesses (sell to or buy from). For example, electronic tendering systems, using reverse auctions, are becoming mandatory. Many governments are moving public services online. E-Save is used in India for the payment of electricity bills etc. You can also request for birth certificate, death certificate, land details etc. Tunneling Tunneling is a protocol that allows for the secure movement of data from one network to another.

Tunneling involves allowing private network communications to be sent across a public network, such as the Internet, through a process called encapsulation. The encapsulation process allows for data packets to appear as though they are of a public nature to a public network when they are actually private data packets, allowing them to pass through unnoticed. Tunneling is also known as port forwarding. In tunneling, the data are broken into smaller pieces called packets as they move along the tunnel for transport. As the packets move through the tunnel, they are encrypted and another process called encapsulation occurs.

The private network data and the protocol information that goes with it are encapsulated in public network transmission units for sending. The units look like public data, allowing them to be transmitted across the Internet. Encapsulation allows the packets to arrive at their proper destination. At the final destination, De-capitulation and decryption occur. There are various protocols that allow tunneling to occur, including: Point- to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (LOTT) Tunneling is a way for communication to be conducted over a private network but tunneled through a public network.

This is particularly useful in a corporate setting and also offers security features such as encryption options. Firewalls What Is A Firewall? Established controls on the types of request they will route through to the private network for processing and fulfillment. Firewalls typically run monitoring software to detect and thwart external attacks on the site, and are needed to protect internal corporate networks. Put simply, a firewall is a mechanism used to protect a trusted outwork from an entrusted network, usually while still allowing traffic between the two.

Typically, the two networks in question are an organization's internal (trusted) network and the (entrusted) Internet. Packet filter firewall It uses a set of rules to determine whether outgoing or incoming data packets are allowed to pass through the firewall. For example, we can, as a rule, specify IP addresses of sending devices such that packets from these IP addresses are not allowed to enter the network. The Firewall would stop them from entering. A packet filter firewall is the simplest type of firewalls which operates at data link and network areas of the OSI model.

Circuit level firewall It is quite similar to the packet filter firewall. It works on the basis of a set of rules for filtering packets. It can make packets sent from internal network to a destination outside the firewall appearing as if they were originated at the firewall. Thus information regarding hosts on the internal network remains secret. It can also determine whether the connection between a host and a machine outside the firewall has been properly established. Thus it can cut off any connection which has been hijacked by a hacker trying to pass through the firewall.

Application gateway firewall It uses strong user authentication to verify identity of a host attempting to connect to the network. In contrast to packet filter firewall, it filters the requests rather than packets entering/leaving the network. It can block any outgoing requests. It can prevent employees of a company inside a firewall from downloading potentially dangerous programs from the outside. In other words, this type of firewall is used to control connections thus employees of a company can be restricted from connecting to certain web sites.

We can combine circuit level capabilities with application gateway services to form Hybrid type of a firewall. Encryption The success or failure of an e-commerce operation hinges on myriad factors, including but not limited to the business model, the team, the customers, the investors, the product, and the security of data transmissions and storage. Security is on the mind of every e-commerce entrepreneur who solicits, stores, or communicates any information that may be sensitive if lost. One of the most effective means of ensuring data security and integrity is encryption.

Encryption is a generic term that refers to the act of encoding data, in this context so that those data can be securely transmitted via the Internet. Encryption can protect the data at the simplest level by preventing other people from reading the data. In the event that someone intercepts a data transmission and manages to deceive any user identification scheme, the data that they see appears to be gibberish without a way to decode it. Encryption technologies can help in other ways as well, by establishing the identity of users (or abusers); control the unauthorized transmission or forwarding of data; verify the integrity of the data (I. . , that it has not been altered in any way); and ensure that users take responsibility for data that they have transmitted. Encryption can people involved in communications (offensively). The basic means of encrypting data involves a symmetric cryptologist. The same key is used to encrypt and to decrypt data. Think about a regular code, which has only one key: where the messages will be encoded according to a scheme where each number, from one to 26, refers to a letter of the alphabet (so that 1 = A, 2 = B, 3 = C, etc. ). The key refers to the scheme that helps match up the encoded information with the real message.

Or perhaps a little more sophisticated code, and used a computer to generate a random match-up f the 26 letters with 26 numbers (so that 6 = A, B, 2 = C, etc. ). Public Key Encryption, or asymmetric encryption, is much more important than symmetric encryption for the purposes of e-commerce. The big improvement wrought by Public Key Encryption was the introduction of the second key - which makes a world of difference in terms of protecting the integrity of data. Public Key Encryption relies on two keys, one of which is public and one of which is private.

If you have one key, you cannot infer the other key. Here's how it works: I have a public key, and I give that key really, information about how to encode the message) out to anyone with whom I wish to communicate. You take my public key and use it to encode a message. You send that message, in coded form, over the network. Anyone else who sees the message cannot read it, because they have only the public key. The message only makes sense when it gets to me, as I have the only copy of the private key, which does the decoding magic, to turn the zeros and ones (bits of information) into readable text.

The most common use of PEEK for e-commerce involves the use of so-called Digital Certificates issued by "trusted" third parties. Here's how this one works. Say you are a customer of Big Safe Bank and you would like to communicate with your bank. If you sent the bank some information (for instance, "please wire the contents of my savings account to a new account in Switzerland"), you might worry that the information could get intercepted en route but you might also worry that the bank would not know it was you who sent the information.

You and Big Safe Bank agree to use a trusted third party to help you communicate in an encrypted manner to one another over the Internet. The bank contracts with Overusing or another provider of a Digital Certificates. When you send a message to the bank, you send your message about wiring funds encrypted twice: once with your own private key, and once with the bank's public key, along with a certificate, encrypted using the institution's private key.

Once the bank gets your message, they use the institution's private key to decrypt the certificate, which in turn gives the bank your public key. The key in the certificate can decrypt the message you sent to such an extent that all the bank then needs is its own key to read the message. After all those keys have worked their magic instantaneously, the bank can be certain of two things: that you were the one ho sent the message and that the message was not read along the way.