According to George Herbert Mead, the _________ begins to develop as children learn to fulfill the different roles involved in games.
generalized other
the American woodworkers adoption of Japanese saws is a good example of....?
cultural diffusion
Yesterday, Bill receive a letter from the student conduct board; the letter notified him that he had been found guilty of academic dishonesty. The letter further informed Bill that he was suspended from the university for two semesters. This letter is an example of......?
none of the above
Your 12-year-old son is thinking about going to camp this summer and he brings home information about camp kil-a-kid. according to the brochure he gives you, camper will rise every morning at 6am dress in the camp uniform, and run two miles. After breakfast everyone has camp duties until lunch. After lunch there is an enforced "rest hour." after that, the campers get to pick an activity for 20 minutes. This is followed by a 20-minutes dip in the camps unheated pool. dinner is at 6pm. and unless kids "clean their plates" they do not get dessert. The brochure warned that the kids are not allowed to call home and that parents cannot visit while camp is in session. You cannot figure out why your son is so excited- to you given your sociological training this place sounds like: ....?
A total intuition
If there were no culture, the most serious consequences would be that....?
humans would have trouble surviving at all.
According to Margaret Visser ("Much Depends On Dinner"), material culture (e.g., forks, chairs, hallways).....?
governs our lives to the extent that we take it for granted
it's your daughters sixteenth birthday and you are catering a "sweet sixteen party" for her. Which of the following statements is most likely to be made by the sociologist who just happens to witness this event?
"this party is a good example of a rite of passage"
Anna and Isabelle were each raised in isolation, but after being rescued Isabelle was more successfully socialized. The difference in outcome can be explained by the fact that....?
Isabelle's mother was present during her early years.
Rene' Spitz' comparison of infants raised in orphanage and infants raised in prison nursery, suggested that....?
social isolation need not to be extreme to have an impact on children's development
At a formal dinner party, Liza slurped her soup too loudly. This action would be described most accurately by a sociologist as a breach of:.....?
As a local farmer, Mark is fully aware o fthe fact that nothing other than white wheat has been grow in the are for hundreds of years. However, Mark decides to break with tradition and plant beans. At the next annual meeting of the farmers Grange Association (FGA), Mark is awarded a giant stuffed green bean and everyone laughs at him. This is an example of what sociologist would call.....?
a negative informal sanction
Consider the following statements and then indicate which "summary statement" (below) is accurate.
-norms reflect a society's values
-institutions are part of societies nonmaterial culture.
-both material and non material elements of culture may diffuse.
-our cultural beliefs indicate what we accept as factual
Each statement is true
Brittney Spears has noticed that people seem to like her singing again. She thinks; "people smile when I sing. I must be a good singer. I feel good about that." Her thinking reflects the dynamics of what Cooley called the:.....?
Looking-glass self
With which of the following statements on socialization would most sociologist disagree?
Socialization is fairly complete once the individual reaches puberty.
Based upon the video, Assaults on Gay America, which of the following statements is false?
All societies make distinctions on the basis of two sex categories (male and female) and all societies define homosexuality the same.
Sociology is best understood as the scientific study of.....?
interaction and relations between human beings
Hernándo's position in society as convicted murder is bet described (sociologically) as...?
an achiever status
In most universities and colleges, young professors must work like crazy to earn tenure. often, special stress is placed on how much the young professor publishes. One consequence of this is that some faculty members do not pay much attention to their teaching, A sociologist would most likely call this outcome....?
a latent dysfunction of the tenure system
To what radio station do people listen in their cars? One sociologist researched this by having auto mechanics through the city keep track of where peoples radios were tuned when they brought their cars in for service. This is an example of : ....?
unobtrusive research
Annabelle smith has a firm personal conviction that the American criminal justice system treats everyone fairly. then, in a Newsweek article, she reads several studies that demonstrate that members of minority groups tend to receive more severe punishments compared to members of other racial groups- regardless of the type of crime. Max Webber would tell ms smith that:...?
she has come face to face with an "inconvenient fact"
Which of the following is not an empirical question?
Are catholic or protestants more likely to achieve heave after death?
Which of the following statements about variables is not true?
According to max weber, when people engage in non rational behavior, they:...?
may be engaging in a behavior simply because they enjoy it
John Howard Griffin was a white man and a journalist. In the 1950s, to discover that it was like to live life as an African American griffin shaved his head dyed his skin black and traveled through the deep south playing the role of an unemployed black man. A sociologist would call this research method:....?
complete participant
which of the following elements would you be surprised to find in an experiment?
all of these are elements of an experiment
According to Durkheim's definition of social facts, which of the following is NOT a social fact?
levels of serotonin
The Nuremberg Code was written in response to....?
experiments performed by Nazi doctors during World War II
_________is a testable statement that describes or explains the relationship between and/or among variables.
a hypothesis
A sample is _______ when every individual in the population has the same chances of being included.
In sociological research the term Hawthorne effect refers to...?
the fact that merely being a subject in a research project can affects someone behavior
Emile Durkheim viewed modern society as...?
all of the above
What is the definition of Sociology?
It is the scientific study of interactions and relations among human beings
What is the Thomas Theorem?
the basic sociological truth that if people define situations as real they are real in their consequences
What are variables?
a variable is something that is thoughtto influence or be influecned by another thing
What do variables have?
What is an attribute?
it is a characteristic or a quality that describes a thing
What are some examples of attributes
Buddhist, male,
What is an hypothesis
different attributes of variable X are related to different attributes of variable Y
What kinds of variables
independent and dependent
what's the difference between independent and dependent
the dependent variable depends on the independent variable
What is a positive relationship
variables that vary in the same direction
What is a negative relationship
variables hat vary in the opposite direction
What is the operational definition
defining a variable in such a way that I can be observed and measured often accomplished by listing the variables attributes
what is operationalizing a variable
listing a variables attributes so that you can count the presence ior absence of those attribute in the real world
What is an example of operationalizing a variable?
gender: (attributes): male and female
what does a list of variables being exhaustive mean?
everything or person being observed must fit into one category
What does a list of variables being mutually exclusive mean?
no one person or thing should be able to fit into more than a single category
How do you read tables and figures? 5 steps
1-begin by reading the title of the table carefully (to be sure not to misinterpret a table)
2-determine the source of the data (is it trustworthy)
3-read any notes that accompany the table or figure (additionally info about data)
4-examine any footnotes
5-look for any trends in the data (vertically or horizontally- what does the table tell me about the relationship between the variables)
What is a survey?
it is a series of questions asked of a number of people
What are the strength an weakness of survey?
strengths of survey are that they are appropriate for discovering basic "demographic information" (age, gender, income, education, and religion affliations) it is also a strength because if allows research to observe things they cannot observe directly such has attitudes. A weakness of the survery method is that it can not measure peoples actual behaviorwell. people can not give an accurate account of theri behaviors even when they want to.
`What is an experiment?
a research method that involves manipulatinig the causual factor and then observing the effects on an outcome
What are the strength an weakness of a experiment?
strength can determinecausation not jsutassocation because research subjects can be manipulated
limitations- they are difficult and expensice to conduct, may cause ethical andlegal complications when subjets lives are manipulated, difficult to test more the none factor at a time, require longfollowup
What is observational research (field work)?
researchersdirectly observe behaviorsin natrual enviroment notlabatory
What are the strength an weakness of observational research (field work)?
strength-can be observed subjects innatrual setting, can provide rich detailedinfo
imits-cannot be generalized to thelarger populations, may be affected by the presence oftheresearcher
What is the Hawthrone effect?
changes that occur in peoples bahvior becase they are involved as research subjecys`
What are the types of unobtrustive research?
artifacts,exisitingn statistics
What is Tiangulation?
research strategy inwhich differnt resrach methods are brought to bear on one single research prblem
Why is Triangulation important?
because one is using somany methods of research (triangualtion) the benfifitis the strength of one method overcome the weakness of another
What is culture?
culture consist of patterns, explicit, implicit, for behavior transmiteed by symbols,ext ideasvalues
What is material and nonmaterial culture?
material is anthign that humans make or adapt from raw stuff in nature: ex: computers, houses, forks,
nonmaterial is made up of nontanigle things that vary from simple to complexy ex:ideas about truth and beauty
What are artifacts?
are byproducts of human behavior
What are symbols?
is anything that represents something else tomore then one perosn
Define language?
isan organized set of symbols but is essenctial to nonmaterial cultre
define gestures
are a part of language as well it send messages with your body language and how you move
define norms
rules about bahvior
dwefine folkways
causual norms -violations are not takenseriously ex: stnafin forward in an eleveato
define mores/mos
mores are anthign but causual and reflect more important rules-example: unjustfiedable assauls
define taboo
are norms that are so deepely held that even the thought of violating then upsets people
define santions
visible responses to behavior
define formal danctions
are official responses- governemtn,churches, university
define informal santions
come fromidividual of social groups
define postibe seantcion
positive sanctiosn would be rewarded if youre keepign up with thenorms
define negative sanctions
ifyou violate a norm
define values
general or abstract ideas about what is good or desirable
define beliefs
peoples ideas about what is real and not real
define ideology
shared beliefs that are distorted by econcimic or political condition
define cultural leveling
as cultural diffusion increases the differencesbetween cultural decreases
define cultural diffusion
processby which people of differnet cultures borrow elements ofmaterial and nonmaterial culture from one another
define subculture
a group of people who specialized norms, beliefs, or use ofmaterial culture set them apart from other people in soceity
define countercultura
subcultuer whose values andbeliefs set it not only apart from but also in opposition to the domiant cukture
Who is Margaret visser
she states "the extent to which we take every day objects for granted is the price extent to which they govern andinform our lives"
What is "much depend son dinner"
what is ideoculture
knowledge, eliefs, behaviors, customs, shared by members of a small group used by group members to facilitate interacitons
define culture as a product of action
define culture as a conditioning element of action
define sociolization
is the process by which people acquire cultral coptenecy and through which society perpetuates the fundamental nature of exsisting social structures
what is social slef
are the values,beliefs,ideas, and ecsion makign strategies and the general way in which people live theri lives
what is the thing sabout anna an disableel
they were an example of importance of social facors. anna was a wedlcok child that was locked in an attic for the first 6 years oof her life. she awas fed but not nurtured in any way other than that. when she was rescued she could not do any of the things expected of a normal 6 year old. she died four years later. isablle was also kept in seclusion away from huma ninteraction quite lke anna had been. when she was frescued at 6.5 she acted the way a animal would. ina couple of years she caught up to the other kids her age.. the reason she did better then ann was because she wasnt completely cut off form huma interaction like anna had been
who is cooley
he created what is called the looking glass self.
What is the looking glass self
it is based on our preception of how others see us
what is a generalized other
as the child begins more and more to be able to take onthe point of view of others, we say that he or she has acquired a generalized other
what is the rene spitz research
compared the progress of infants in two differnt settings. one was a nursery and theother was an orphange. the children in both werewell takencare of the only real differnce between the two was theamount of social interaction. in prison nursery infants were cardmostly for by there mothers, where in the orphange sixnursescaredfor 45infants. the outcome was the orphanage did not do well
What are the agents of socilization
family-important role inreproducing exsisting social arragnements,school-is the firstlessonone learnsthat everyonecan expect to be treated in the same relatively impersonalmanner , hidden circulum, mass media- has exposure that effects ourperception of reality, peer groups-socializing children into appropriate gender role bahviors, workplace-helps you findemployment and begin to learn the reality of a job,
What is mead-play and games
play was an essential part of human develipment becauseit was imitative behavior like playing pretend. games had rules and specific roles like baseball
What is mead- I and me
mead said he self had two phases, i and me. the me is the part based on how one sees others as seeing themselves. the is the part of you that is uniquelt you like your personal reactions to the situation
define role takign
to take on the role of another and see hw things look from his or her point of view
define rites of passage
is a ceremony or ritual that marks an imporatnt transition from status to status within the life cycle
define anticipatory socilization
involves learning about an even playing at a work tole before entering it
define resocialisation
is taking away the individuals self and giving them a new one more in keeping with the need of total instituion
define degradation ceremonies
has a goal of degrading the individual to take away the indicuials self in prep from giving them a new one
define depersonalization
is when they have their personality basically taken away from them and rewired to new rules
define total instituions
are places of "residence and work where a leage number of life-situated indivuals cut off from the wider society for an apperciableamount of time together lead an eclosed formally admiinsterd round of life
What are the differneces between income and wealth? (bnotes)
income is theamount of money that anindividual or gamilygroup recieves in wages, salaries, investments, and so on. Wealth is the total value of assets owened by an individual or family grpoup, minus the amount of debt they have
What share of the total US income does the riches 20 percent of us families earn? (notes
half of income taht is paid out each year
What share of the toal us wealth does the riches 20 percent of us families hold?
more then 80 percent of wealth
define matthew effect
the matthew effect is described as such" "once wealth is accumplated, oppurtunities to makemore money multipl since accumlated wealth leads to income-earning oppurtunities that are not open to those with out wealth"
define cultural and structural explantions of inequality
cultural explanation of the reproduction of the class structure hinge on two differnt assumptions: people in deiffernt social classes have different patterns of values, beliefs, and behavioral normas,or that the cultural perpsective is that the values, beliefs and bahvioral norms of lower classes are not very compatiblewith social success. structrual explanations of the reproducion of the class system reject the notion that the best way to understnad poverty is to look at cultural attributes of the poor
define Pygmalion effect
is the effect of teachers expectations on students performace
What is social stratification
is the evolution ranking reward system and its results
explain the differneces between sex and gender
sex is biological and gender is what you choose
Women in th elabor forvce working full time eanr about home much for every dollar earned by men?
C. Wright Mills, "The Promise"- What is socioligcal imagination/perspective
it is an analytical tool that is useful for understanding and explainging individuals behavior patterns of social action,and other social phenomenas
-it does not absolve personal responsibilty;however, it reveals that an individual behavior is impacted by factors outside of that individual
C. Wright Mills, "The Promise"- what are the personal troubesl of the milleu
They are the troubles that occur within the characterof the individual and within the range of his imediate relationship with others... millieu-the social setting that is directly open to his persoanl experience and t some extent his willful activity
C. Wright Mills, "The Promise"- what are the public issues of the social structure
issues have to do with matters that transcend theses local environments of the individual and the range of his inner life. it has to do with organizations of many milleux into instituions and historical society asa whole
C. Wright Mills, "The Promise"- why is the sociological imagination/percepective useful
its important because it reveals the bigger pictures, illuminates connections amond individuals and problems in society, it heps avoid explaing social life soley in terms of indivdual or physcological ways, facilitates critical thinking of taken -for-granted instituions and patterened ways of doing things, it offers ways for sovling problems and bringing social change
Lisa J. McIntyre, Hernando Washington- using sociological imagination/perspective explain hernandos pattern of thinking and behaving... discuss specific facts about hernando social milleu based upon information provided in the reading an din calss
Lisa J. McIntyre, Hernando Washington- How does the sociological explanation of hernados behavior differ from a non socioligcal explanation
Lisa J. McIntyre, Doing the right thing: Ethics in Research- Why are ethics important
Lisa J. McIntyre, Doing the right thing: Ethics in Research- Why was the Nuremburg code written?
Lisa J. McIntyre, Doing the right thing: Ethics in Research-Under wht condtions may a sociological researcher use deception in conducting research?
Lisa J. McIntyre, Doing the right thing: Ethics in Research- At what point in the reasearach process mkust a researcher be concerned about research ethics?
Lisa J. McIntyre, Doing the right thing: Ethics in Research- What is the difernce between ethics and morality
Lisa J. McIntyre, Doing the right thing: Ethics in Research- What is informaed consent
Lisa J. McIntyre, Doing the right thing: Ethics in Research- What is the Nuremberg code
Horace Miner, Body Rituals among Nacirema- summarize the article
Horace Miner, Body Rituals among Nacirema- how and in what ways does this article demonstrater the importance of language?
Horace Miner, Body Rituals among Nacirema- Which culture/society does this article describe?
Allan G. Johnson, "What Can We Do? Becoming Part of the Solution"- Without discussing any specific policy solutions and drawing upon the assigned reading by Johnson, breifky discuss the ways in which you can be a part of the solution for alleviating social inequality and injustice
VIDEO: Assault on Gay America- Using a sociological imagination/perspective explain how and why hate crimes against gays especially gay men occur withoin our contry
VIDEO: Assault on Gay America- Whwat are the cultural and historical cotnexts for understanding violence against homewsecuals?
VIDEO: Assault on Gay America- do all coutnries/societies define homosexualioty the same?
VIDEO: Assault on Gay America-What differneces have emerged over time?
VIDEO: Assault on Gay America- What differences have even ermged from our amrican society
VIDEO: Assault on Gay America- What are the consequences fro those who do not fit into the traditional masculine/femine categories
Nathan McCall- Makes Me Wanna Holler: A Young Black Male In America- in three short pargraphs summarize Nathan mccals pre prison, prison, and post prison
Nathan McCall- Makes Me Wanna Holler: A Young Black Male In America- discuss how various factors impacted McCalls bahvior and perceptions, beliefs and attitufdes