Hence the need of such kind of study in the managerial development context in order to gaslight to other organizations the importance of keeping up with the fast pace of socio-economical changes and the reshaping of organizational behavior. This research is mainly a qualitative study that explored different theories, and investigated several methods and techniques: diagrams, tables, and peer-reviewed studies that assisted the author to reach the important findings in the conclusion.
It is identified that the team members' roles need to be re-assessed in addition to a critical need for the team leaders to develop their communication and managerial skills. The author recommended that the organizational support be thoroughly empower its team leaders, the need of additional training for the team leaders in questions and the increase of employee engagement through several techniques reviewed in the study.
Rapid change has been a feature of our world for decades, driven by technological innovation across nearly every culture. We are all faced not only by fast change, but change in the form of severe shocks and surprises - that not only disrupt plans and strategies but also threaten the very viability of organizations. Business cycles are not a new phenomenon. Downturns and upturns have come and one as long as research history shows.
Major department store retailers such as Walter and Target have been faced with some significant challenges in an increasingly competitive and globalizes operating environment in recent years. The eruption of the global financial crisis in 2008 with its tremors still reverberating, along with the abrasion of technology-based cultures has led to numerous organizations' breakdowns. At the same time, innovations in transportation and telecommunications have redefined the marketplace itself, and growing numbers of consumers are electing to o most of their department store purchases online.
These trends have also been matched by a proliferation of social media networks such as Twitter and Backbone that are also redefining marketing best practices. In this environment, it is not surprising that some organizational leaders have failed to maintain pace with these changes, and this is certainly the case with Sapphire department store's two troubled team leaders who did not adapt as proactively or effectively as the times demand.
Page | 3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT With more than 200 business units and a workforce of 6,500 from 40 different entries, Sapphire is well positioned to model the way in developing ways to improve employee relationships and managerial communications with a diverse 2 NATURE OF THE PROJECT This study analyses the relationship and communications problems Sapphire has been experiencing in one business unit with 30 full- and part-time employees. Following a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning these issues, the study presents a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
IMPORTANCE OF THE PROJECT A growing body of evidence confirms that motivated workers are vitally important and even critical for companies to achieve and sustain a competitive advantage in an increasingly globalizes marketplace. Recent research suggests that high-involvement work practices can develop the positive beliefs and attitudes associated with employee engagement, and that these practices can generate the kinds of discretionary behaviors that lead to enhanced performance.
Simply put, employees who conceive, design and implement workplace and process changes are engaged employees. (Ivy Business Journal 2006) In this regard, Gammon (2006, p. 26) emphasizes that, "The combination of Job satisfaction and demographic trends that predict labor shortages, skill deficits, and fewer workers has all the Page | 4 elements for dramatic changes in the way work is performed, who performs it and where, and the skill sets needed. Page | 5 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW The following chapter investigates the leadership approach of human resources explores several tools and techniques significant for the purpose of this project. Furthermore, he found the list of methods below to be significantly helpful in rooting out the possible obstacles that the two underperforming team leaders are facing. In edition, the author suggests the below-mentioned tools in hopes of enabling the team leaders to enhance their interpersonal skills, and increase the employee's engagement and consequently their motivation. 1.
FISHBONE ANALYSIS Fishbone diagrams (so termed because they resemble the skeleton of a fish - see Figure 1 below) have been used to good effect wherein decision-makers must take into account a number of hypotheses and perform a number of tests in order to identify the problem (McGraw & Harrison 1999). Figure 1: Representative Fishbone Diagram (Professor Karri Chickasaws 1968) Page | 6 According to McGraw and Harrison (1999, p. 92), "When creating these diagrams, analysts should represent the more common hypotheses near the 'head' of the diagram, and uncommon or frequently selected hypotheses near the tail. To date, "fishbone analyses" have been used for a wide range of applications, including the evaluation of healthcare services and human resources management (Paramilitary & Dataset 2009). 2. ROOT CAUSE According to Middleton and Walker (2005, p. 37), a root cause analysis "is a systematic method of analyzing a specific adverse event to determine what happened, why it happened and what can be done to prevent it from happening again. A root cause analysis is an essential tool for evaluating human resource issues and provides a measure of how well participants understand and comprehend their company's policies and procedures (Schafer 2012). . SKINNER'S BEHAVIOR REINFORCEMENT THEORY According to Todd and Morris (1999, p. 4), "Reinforcement theory' is sometimes called 'behavior theory, 'learning theory,' and 'operational behaviorism,' among other things. During his experimentation, Skinner found that both positive and negative reinforcements can affect behavior, sometimes in truly powerful ways (Todd & Morris 1999). Reinforcement theory is especially salient with respect to employee motivation. In this regard, Lutheran (2000) reports that, "A primary activity of any type of leader involves motivating and reinforcing others to encourage superior performance.
Put in desired behaviors. " Therefore, when team leaders apply reinforcement theory, it is with a singular goal in mind: "To sustain motivation, leaders must demonstrate to employees a close link between performance and rewards" (Lutheran 2000, p. 31). Page | 7 4. BEELINE TEAM ROLES Belch describes in the literature a 7 years long managerial experiment whereby 120 management teams took part in competitive business simulations. The observational data received from these simulations included a wide range of contributions from various team members (Belch, 2001).
Bellini's researchers identified several team-role patterns. "It became obvious that each team member had a preferred or natural role, a secondary role (one that he or she was able to assume when necessary), and least- preferred/best-avoided roles" (Belch, 2001 p. 87). Bellini's original observational studies resulted in eight different team roles, and a ninth role was later identified as well. All nine roles are regarded as being important to team performance and are described further in Table 1 below. Role Description Plant Devises creative solutions to problems.
Coordinator Interprets objectives, encourages decisions, facilitates appropriate resources. Resource investigator Finds useful contacts and resources outside the team. Monitor evaluator Discerns opinions, makes insightful Judgments. Implementer Translates ideas into action and organizes the process. Resolves disagreements; concentrates on diplomacy. Completer-finisher Fixes errors; ensures work is complete; meets deadlines. Specialist Offers knowledge or skills that others may not have. Shaper Challenges others to overcome difficulties.
Table 1: Nine team roles identified by Beeline (Belch, 2001) Page | 8 The nine team roles described in Table 1 are not necessarily static, and team members may perform different roles at different times. Developing balanced roles within a team serves three valuable purposes: It increases the likelihood of positive contributions from individual members, b. It decreases the likelihood of destructive conflict among members, and It enhances the team's ability to adapt to changing and unpredictable circumstances Belch 2001). 5.
CORBEL'S TALENT MANAGEMENT MATRIX The talent management matrix developed by Cornell is set forth in Table 2 below May be new in Job. Valued talent, capacity for potential has been realized. Capacity for immediate advancement. Potential for senior succession. Action: Look for opportunities for growth and new experiences. Opportunities to promote. Give top level assignments. Partner with executives. Reward and recognize. May be new in Job or organization. May have lost pace with the changes in the organization. Steady and dependable performers, but capable of more. May not understand hangers in the organization.