This adds thickness and strength with very little increase in weight. Used for packaging objects which need protection during transportation. Cartridge paper / Photocopy paper is used for design drawings, sketches and good quality marker pen presentations. The surface Is good for pencils, pens and markers. And is soft enough to be used for crayons, pastels, colors and inks.

Layout paper (Detail paper) is a thin, fairly transparent white paper which revised a cheap medium for designers to visualize an object or design. Use In preparation of final designs to trace Images. Bleed Proof paper has similar qualities to cartridge paper but is good at isolating water based paints and pens so they don't run into areas where you don't want them. Used in high quality presentations. Cardboard Is a cheap, recyclable and stiff board with a good surface to print onto. Used for packaging, boxes and cartons. White board is good for packaging and book covers. It is strong, and the surface has been bleached to allow for printing.

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Duplex Board Is used mainly In food packaging, as recycled materials cannot be used for this purpose. It Is also less expensive than white board, and provides a different texture for printing. Grey Board is used in schools for model making and for book making. The surface Is stiff and reliable. ; Plastics -Plastics are manufactured through a process known as popularization. Popularization occurs when monomers Join together and form long chains, known as polymers. Thermoplastics and Thermosetting Plastics are the two different types of plastics. Additives can be added to both thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics to change he qualities.

Stabilizers prevent moisture or LIVE light from affecting the surface. Lubricants are sulfides and waxes that make the polymer easier to form and self- lubricating In use. Pigments add colors to the plastic. Plasticizer make the plastic less brittle. 1 OF 7 Thermosetting Plastics are heated and molded into shape. They will not soften if re- heated, as the monomers are interlinked. These have individual monomers to form a massive polymer. Strong bonds between chains stop movement between them. Types of Thermosetting Plastics include: Melamine Formaldehyde (ME), which is a heat resistant polymer.

Used for tableware, electric installations, synthetic resin paints, decorative laminates and worktops. Epoxy Resin (ERE) (Epoxies) is a resin and hardener mixed to produce a cast for castings, Print Circuit Boards (PC) and surface coating. Polyester Resin (PR) polymerases at room temperature and is a resin and hardener mixed together. It is reinforced with glass fiber. It is laminated and used to form glass reinforced plastic (GRIP) castings, encapsulations, car bodies and boats. Phenol Formaldehyde is a hard, brittle plastic which has a dark color, a gloss finish and is resistant to heat.

It is used for dark colored electrical fittings and parts of domestic appliances such as kettles, bottle tops, iron and saucepan handles. Urea Formaldehyde is a colorless polymer which is colored with artificial pigments to produce a wide range of different colors. Used for door handles, cupboard handles, electrical fillings, bottle tops and electrical switches. Thermoplastics Will soften when heated, and can be reheated to be molded again though it hardens when cooled. They are recyclable and have weak bonds between chains. HIDE Polyethylene is high density, stiff and strong.

Used for pipes, bowls, milk rates and buckets. Commonly known as polythene. LDAP Polyethylene is low density, weaker, softer and more flexible. Used for packaging, film, carrier bags, toys and 'squeeze' detergent bottles. Polypropylene (UP) can be flexed many times without breaking, and is used for bottle crates, nets, syringes, food containers, storage and medical equipment. Acrylic has a glass like transparency or opaqueness that cannot be colored with pigments. Hard wearing and will not shatter; used for machine guards, display signs, baths and roof lights. Nylon has good resistance to wear and tear.

Solid nylon has low friction qualities ND a high melting point. Used for curtains, combs, hinges, bearings, clothing, gear wheels and curtain rail fittings. PVC rigid (Polyvinyl chloride) is stiff and hard wearing. A plasticizer can be added to create a softer and more rubbery material. Used for air and water pipes, chemical tanks, shoe soles, shrink and blister packaging and floor and wall coverings. Acetate is a film used for packaging, printing and overlays. Film is available in finishes including clear, matted and prepared (gel coated) Polystyrene (AS) ranges from low to high density according to its function.

Low onsite polystyrene is good for absorbing shock, and high density is good for insulation. Can be soft and spongy or hard and brittle depending on the density and use. Smart materials change according to their environment; for example temperature and light. Some of these materials have memory- Meaning that they can return to their original state. Modern materials are developed through the invention of new or improved processes. Thermometric materials respond to temperature through color change. They are made of liquid crystals or metal compounds. Used in temporary tattoos, mugs, temperature strips and t-shirts.

Photometric materials change color in different light intensities. These are used for spectacle lenses and 'smart' windows for cars and coaches. Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) is a display which consists of two transparent panels and a liquid crystal surface in between them. Voltage is applied to certain areas, causing the crystals to turn black. Light source behind the panels transmits through certain crystals, but are blocked by the dark ones. Mainly used for TV screens. Phosphorescent materials are also known as 'afterglow' or 'glow in the dark' materials, and they produce visible or invisible light.

They function by absorbing light when exposed to a source, and can be applied to materials as a spray or paint form. Available in both water based and solvent based mediums. Precious Metal Clay is a type of clay with metal content. When it dries, it needs to be heated to set. Can be used for beads to make Jewelry and small sculptures. Paper foam / Potatoes are biodegradable trays, plates, bowls and cups that are made from potato starch. They do not last, but can be composted after used, or used for pig food. Polymorph is a thermoplastic material that can be shaped or reshaped. Supplied as granules, can be used in the classroom.

Can be shaped by hand - 'e. Pressed into moulds. Expensive, but suitable for AD modeling. Electronic Paper Displays (BED) is used to display digital versions of books, e- magazines, bus timetables and electronic billboards. Transversal Prescription Drug Patches are external patches which stick to the skin and infuse drugs into the body. Nanotechnology deals with materials at an atomic or molecular scale, and is used to create products that are lighter, stronger, cleaner, less expensive and more precise. Can be used for: Increasing strengths of polymers by granting metal-like properties, and making surfaces harder wearing. Garments which sense, react and absorb impact to protect your body in extreme sports or military applications. -Sportswear that measures your fitness levels and responds to the body's feedback. Carbon Fibers can be woven into fabric sheets and then impregnated with an epoxy or phenol resin and forced into a mould. The material is then cured, or set with heated steam, and it creates a very strong and lightweight material. Used in Formula One race cars, aircrafts and bicycles. ; Modeling Materials Tools: Die cutters are similar to pastry cutters. Used to punch holes onto cardboard or paper.

This is also used to cut out packaging. A scalpel or craft knife is used for cutting card. Used with a safety ruler. Compass cutters or circle cutters are used to cut out circles from thin card. Rotary cutters can be used to cut straight lines, and perforation cutters are used to create perforated edges. Guillotines are used to cut paper or card in paper and packaging industries. In school, a rotary trimmer or paper trimmer is used. Scroll saw (Fret saw) is a machine used for cutting woods or plastics into intricate heaps. A Creasing bar is a machine which creases in cardboard to give it an accurate fold.

It retains the strength of the material, whilst scoring seriously weakens it. Adhesives: Rubber Based Cement should be applied to surfaces for 10 minutes before being brought together. Good for mounting photographs; allows time for repositioning. Has a strong smell- Safe to use, but to be used in a well ventilated room. Glue stick is a glue which bonds paper. Creates a weak bond, but is cheap. Safe to use and is environmentally friendly. Aerosol adhesive is also known as spray mount. It is good for sticking bits of paper together, and is also known as 'Photo mount' as it can be used to stick photos to work.

Quite toxic- Mask needed; room should be well ventilated. Polyvinyl Acetate (PA) aka. Resin W or Unbound. It bonds wood or card. It is a white adhesive that dries colorless; sets in 3 hours and hardens in 24. Safe to use, but contact with eyes should be avoided. Balsa Cement is a quick setting adhesive ideal to use on balsa wood. Is safe to use, but needs to be in a well ventilated room. Epoxy resin is a two part adhesive. It's also known as Rallied. Creates a strong ND be in a well ventilated room. Acrylic cement welds acrylic together. It is also known as Tensor no. 12. Should be used in a well ventilated room with eye protection.

Glue guns are heated electronically. The glue softens through the muzzle, which cools quickly and sets. Useful in model making. Hot glue can burn skin. Paints and Inks Lacquers and Varnishes consist of a synthetic resin (acrylic and cellulose) dissolved in an organic solvent. They evaporate quickly to give a quick drying paint. They come in different finishes- Gloss, matt, satin, color and clear. Oil Based Gloss is used to create a shiny finish. It uses a medium of natural drying oil called linseed. Is durable and waterproof. Emulsions contain vinyl or acrylic resin. They are water based, but not waterproof.

Inks come in three different types- Water soluble, water based and solvent based. They are most commonly used as water soluble inks. Mostly used in printing, but not necessarily model making. Pre Manufactured Components are also known as Standard Components. They are brought by manufacturers to 'complete' the product, and are often cheaper than producing it themselves. Evolve is a brand name for hook and loop fasteners. Has looped material on one side and a series of hooks on the other which attach together when the surfaces touch. Preterits relies on the tensile and compression strengths of the material to fit together.

Works by friction resulting in the parts staying together, such as in metal bearings and water tight connectors. Double sided sticky pads are made of foam which has a self adhesive on both sides. Is useful for sticking cardboard together, especially in modeling. Double sided sticky tape is a transparent tape that has self adhesives on both sides. Useful for sticking cardboards together, especially in modeling. Research Corrugated plastic sheet is a layered plastic with two thin sheets on the outer skin and a fluted center. Used for high quality packaging, but is not suitable for molding.

Blackfoot / Styrofoam is a dense version of polystyrene, and can be cut and molded easily. Glued with PA, and can be paint finished. Can be used as plaster based fillers (for filling gaps). Foam board is a laminate of thin foam board sandwiched between thin board. Expensive, and used for architectural modeling. Hard wax is wax that is melted and reformed into a mould. Good for AD modeling, cannot mould when hardened. Allows for details to be carved into shapes. Plaster bandage is also good for AD modeling. Used wet onto wire mesh or other surface. Creates sculptural shape in layers, and hardens when dry.

Can be sanded smooth. Acrylic is used for modeling, but difficult to cut and Join together. Very brittle, but is available in different thicknesses and colors. Medium Density Fiber (MAD) is a manufactured fiberboard with no grain. Uniform, consistent quality readily available. Glued together using PA, is very absorbent so needs to be sealed first. Popular for making product design, solid concept and interior design models. Glutton and Balsa are hardwoods. Glutton is low density; has straight grain and a fine texture. Balsa is a soft hardwood that is easy to shape and mould.

It is used for detail on models and small components Board is commonly used as a material for modeling. Comes in a variety of sizes, thicknesses and colors. Card can be used to make pop ups, moving models and packaging. ; How do product designers keep costs down? To keep costs down, product designers: -Use cheaper material. -Mass produce in continuous flows to eliminate the cost of starting and stopping the process. Use of Pre-manufactured components. ; Processes of modeling Fixatives- A spray which prevents loose particles and smudging of drawings as the spray seals the particles.

Should be used in a well ventilated room with a mask. Other fixings include double and single sided tape, pads, evolve and staples. Masking is used in airbrushing and pastel techniques. Sheet masking requires you to cut out the shapes onto self adhesive materials with a scalpel, and stick it to paper. Tape masking is used to mask of small areas Fluid masking is applied with a brush to very intricate areas. The fluid dries and is then peeled off. Encapsulation is when the paper is sealed by heat in a pocket or pouch. Lamination is a composite of several materials.

Mounting / Picture framing -The cardboard used to mount these frame or pictures is often known as a board. Mounting -Picture is attached from behind the card window using masking tape. Fillers are either plaster or body fillers, and are used to fill gaps in models. They can also be sanded down later. ; Blister packaging -A type of pre-formed packaging used for small consumer goods. -There is a cavity which is made of plastic or aluminum that contains the product, and a eliding of paperboard, plastic or aluminum that seals the product in the cavity. Vacuum forming and mould/former -A former is made out of materials such as soft wood / MAD. Draft angles are used so that the mould would come out, and are between 5 and 10 degrees. -The former is placed into the vacuum former. -The plastic sheet (commonly, and other thermoplastics) is clamped in position above the mould. -The heater is turned on, and the plastic slowly becomes soft. -After a few minutes when the plastic is flexible, the heater is turned off and the mould is moved upwards by lifting the lever until it locks into position. The vacuum is turned on, and it sucks the air out beneath the plastic sheet.

Atmospheric pressure above the plastic sheet pushes it down and onto the mould. -When the plastic has cooled sufficiently, the vacuum is switched off. -The sheet is then removed from the former, and it is trimmed.