Unit 022 Understand Child and Young Person Development. Outcome 1 Understand the expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth-19 years. AC1 The aspects of development are Physical, Cognitive, Communication, Social (including Emotional & Behavioural) and Moral. In explaining the sequence of development I have used guideline ages for when it is most common to see the development. Physical Development Birth – reflex actions performed without thinking – startle, grasp, swallowing & sucking, rooting, walking & standing. month old – babies are less likely to be startled and start to sleep straight rather than in a curled up, foetal position. 3 months old – can turn and lift their heads. 6 months old – while lying on their tummy can lift their hands and feet into the air. 9 months old – using their fingers to pick up objects and finger food. 1 yr old – standing and holding onto furniture. 18 months old – using their legs to move around an area. Sitting on a sit-and-ride toy and using their legs to push them along. 2 yrs old – running and climbing. 30 months – pedalling a tricycle or push with feet. yrs old – walking upstairs using alternate feet. 4 yrs old – using their hands and fingers to manipulate objects and carry out activities. E. g. using scissors, holding a pencil. 5-6 yrs – the ability to kick and control a ball. Handwriting is more legible and the child has increased fine manipulative movements. 7-9 yrs – drawing and writing is neater, accurate cutting out. 9-11 yrs – greater co-ordination and speed when carrying out both big and small movements. 11-13 yrs – growth and changes to the body (puberty). 13-19 yrs – occasional poor spatial awareness as a result of body shape hanging rapidly. Cognitive Development Birth – recognise the small and sound of their primary carer (mum). 1 month old – babies cry because they hear a familiar voice. 3 months old – start to notice moving objects. 6-9 months old – toys and objects picked up and explored using mouth and fingers. 1 yr old – recognise patterns and routines in the day. 18 months old – enjoyment of pop-up and posting toys. 2 yrs old – using building bricks and simple jigsaws. 30 months old – pretend play / home corner / dressing up. 3 yrs old – interested in painting, books and mark making. yrs old – has a good concentration when an activity has interested them. 5-6 yrs – counting and simple calculations. 7-9 yrs – reading books quietly to themselves. 9-11 yrs – problem solving. 11-13 yrs – reasoning as well as problem solving. Understanding more abstract ideas. 13-19 yrs – High level of skills (writing, reading, I. T. ). Communication Development Birth – Crying when hungry, tired or distressed. 1 month old – contented cooing. 3 months old – smiling back at a happy face. 6 months old – Arms lifting to show they want to be picked up. 9 months old – Tuneful babbling. yr old – pointing at objects to explain what they need. 18 months old – some recognisable words. 2 yrs old – vocabulary of about 200 words. 30 months old – using 2-word compounds, ‘drink-yes’. 3 yrs old – speech easily understood. 4 yrs old – asking questions and enjoying talking. 5-6 yrs – starting to decode / read familiar words. 7-9 yrs – telling jokes and enjoying chatting. Using speech to argue, persuade and negotiate. 9-11 yrs – imaginative stories that are legible and spelt correctly. 11-13 yrs – good reading and writing skills, continued progress with negotiating / persuading skills. 3-19 yrs – use of technology to communicate. Social, Emotional and Behavioural Birth – close contact between mother and baby, especially during feeding. 1 month old – little smiles when asleep. 3 months old – enjoyment at bath time. 6 months old – smiles of delight when playing. 9 months old – clingy to their primary carer. 1 yr old – the need to stay near parents / carers with anxiety if strangers approach. 18 months – signs of temper and frustration. Interest in other children. 2 yrs old – anger and frustration when unable to do something. Playing beside but not with other children (parallel play). 0 months old – temper tantrums. Playing with other children, copying their actions. 3 yrs old – interest in other children and some co-operative play. 4 yrs old – responding well to adult praise and co-operative play with occasional squabbles. 5-6 yrs – start of friendship preferences. 7-9 yrs – stable friendships. Differences in girls and boys activities and play. 9-11 yrs - as with 7-9 yrs, and also enthusiasm when given areas of responsibility. 11-13 yrs – strong attachment to friends. Anxiety about pressure at school. Exploring boundaries in relationships, e. g. arguing with parents. 3-19 yrs – confidence and enjoyment when with friends. Behaviour linked to low self esteem. Moral Up to 30 months – no understanding of right and wrong and the word ‘no’. 3 yrs old – can follow simple rules most of the time. 4 yrs old – thoughtful towards others at times, still need adult approval. 5-6 yrs – keen to understand and use rules. 7-9 yrs – bossy behaviour – telling others the rules, tale telling when others break rules. 9-11 yrs – awareness of consequences. 11-13 yrs – understanding that society needs rules. 13-19 yrs – understanding right and wrong and consequences of actions. Interest in moral issues.
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