Creatine Monohydrate Creatine Monohydrate Creatine is a natural substance found in highest concentration in lean red muscle tissue of animals and humans in the form of creatine phosphate. When muscles are used to lift a weight, or perform any type of work, ATP, (Adenosine Triphosphate) is rapidly broken down to ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate) and energy is released. The amount of ATP stored in the muscle will only fuel a maximum effort such as weight lifting for 10 to 15 seconds. After that the muscle must rely on Creatine to restock its supply of ATP. ATP has three phosphate molecules to one molecule of adenosine.

Energy is created when one of the phosphate molecules breaks away turning ATP into adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which is adenosine with only two phosphate molecules. The breaking of the bonds between these molecules produces all the energy the body requires to work. Creatine phosphate (CP) serves as an immediate backup to restore the missing phosphate bond. Dietary creatine is available in meats and fish, but the amount is depleted rapidly when foods are cooked. There is approximately 2 grams of creatine per pound of raw, red meat.

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Most people, through diet and synthesis, only store about 60-80% of their potential creatine levels. This is why some say that supplementing with creatine enables an individual to elevate their creatine storage to a maximum value. This additional creatine is believed to give the body the necessary ingredients to reproduce more ATP during the creatine kinase process and to ultimately generate more work. Maximizing the level of stored Creatine through supplemental ingestion of Creatine Monohydrate, is believed to extend peak athletic performance for longer periods during short duration, high intensity exercise. Creatine Monohydrate may also help the weightlifter by increasing the volumization of the muscles, buffering lactic acid build-up, and enhancing protein synthesis. The general consensus among bodybuilders is that Creatine does work. While using Creatine most athletes say they notice the increased endurance that it provides.

Many note that they have as much energy and strength as they had at the beginning of the workout. Because Creatine is a fairly new supplement, there has been little study on the effects from long-term usage. Protein Found in fish, meats, poultry eggs and dairy products, proteins contain amino acids, which aid in the building of muscle. Like carbohydrates, proteins also give the body fuel and energy it needs in order to complete a physically demanding workout. Because protein plays such a key role in the building of muscle, it also becomes a source of controversy in the sports nutrition community.

How much protein do bodybuilders need? First figure out how many calories you need. If you're not taking in enough calories, you can't build muscle tissue efficiently. That's because your body will be burning most of your calories, not using them to repair muscle tissue. For example, take a 180 pound guy -- if he's moderately active, he probably needs about 2700 calories a day (plus or minus a few) to maintain his weight. Besides his moderate daily activity level, he could burn about 500 calories during an hour of heavy weightlifting.

If he wants to add one pound of muscle weight per week, he needs approximately 500 extra calories per day plus about 500 more to make up for the energy deficit from intense weightlifting. This makes his grand total to be around 3700 calories a day. So how can we translate this number to his protein needs? The RDA for protein has been established at 0.8 grams/kg of body weight for adults. This is not enough to build muscle mass for intense athletes. Although it's difficult to pinpoint a specific number because you have to take into account many variables, research has determined an acceptable range: even at the very high end, the top protein intake needs to be 1.5 - 2.0 g/kg of body weight. For our 180 lb. (divided by 2.2 = 82 kg) lifter, this would be 122 - 164 grams of protein per day. Since protein has 4 calories per gram, then this amount of protein would comprise 13 - 18 percent of his daily caloric intake of 3700 calories; the usual recommendation is about 12 - 15 percent.

As you can see, a huge excess of protein is not needed. It's easy to get enough protein from food -- and quite easy for many people to overdo it. If too much high-fat protein is taken in, and not used, gains may be seen in fat tissue rather than in muscle tissue. Androstendione Androstenedione is a direct precursor hormone to testosterone, as well as to other hormones, including one type of estrogen. It is converted from cholesterol, as are all other steroid hormones.

Biochemically, a reaction, or chain of reactions, occurs in order to convert molecule A into molecule B. Specific enzymes and hormones, among other things, must be present and ready to work, so to speak, for these conversions to take place. For example, luteinizing hormone, produced and released by the pituitary gland, plays a pivotal role in converting androstenedione to testosterone. Simply introducing extra androstenedione to your system does not automatically mean that all of the necessary players will be there to produce testosterone. Most clinical studies have shown that gains in muscle mass with Androstenedione are few with possible side effects such as increased risk of heart disease, increased risk of pancreatic cancer, and increase in unwanted breast enlargement.

DHEA DHEA is naturally produced by the adrenal glands which sit on top of each kidney. We make less of it as we get older and probably 80% less by the time we're 70 years of age. As a dietary supplement it might have a positive effect on awareness and overall sense of well being in people over 50. Studies have shown this. In people under 50 it has not been shown to have much effect at all.

A dose for people over 50 would be 50mg per day. DHEA is two steps removed from being testosterone and can either convert to androstenedione (4-dione) or 5-androstenediol (5-diol). 4-dione may convert to either testosterone or estrone (an estrogen) and 5-diol may convert to testosterone or back to DHEA. DHEA is not a good testosterone precursor and at best will go through no less than two conversions to become testosterone. Additional information on supplements can be found on the supplements page. Sports and Games.