The study of computer architecture focuses on the interface between hardware and software, and emphasizes the structure and behavior of the system. 2. What an SIS? The SIS Is the agreed upon Interface between all the software that runs on the machine and the hardware that executes It. The SIS allows you to talk to the machine. 3. What is the importance of the Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software? Principle of Equivalence of Hardware and Software: Any task done by software can also be done using hardware, and any operation performed directly by hardware can be done using software. Tells us that we have a choice. Knowledge of computer organization and architecture will help us to make the best choice. 4. Name the three basic components of every computer. 1. A processor to interpret and execute programs 2. A memory to store both data and programs 3. A mechanism for transferring data to and from the outside world 7. What unit Is typically used to measure the speed off computer clock? Power-of-II prefixes are ordinarily used for power, electrical voltage, and frequency, A computer's clock speed is normally measured in Maze (megahertz) rough (gigahertz).

A megahertz is equal to one million ticks per second while one gigahertz is equal to one billion ticks per second. 22. State Moor's Law. Moor's law Is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors In a dense Integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years 24. Name and explain the seven commonly accepted layers of the Computer Level Hierarchy. How does this arrangement help us to understand computer systems? Level 6, the user Level, is composed of applications and is the level with which everyone is most familiar.

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At this level, we run programs such as word processors, graphics packages, or games. FORTRAN, Lisp, Pascal, and Prolog. The user at this level sees very little of the lower levels. Even though a programmer must know about data types and the instructions available for those types, she need not know about how those types are actually implemented. Level 4, the Assembly Language Level, encompasses some type of assembly language. Level 3, the System Software Level, deals with operating system instructions.

This bevel is responsible for multiprogramming, protecting memory, synchronizing processes, and various other important functions Level 2, the Instruction Set Architecture (SIS), or Machine Level, consists of the machine language recognized by the particular architecture of the computer system. Level 1, the Control Level, is where a control unit makes sure that instructions are decoded and executed properly and that data is moved where and when it should be. Level O, the Digital Logic Level, is where we find the physical components of the computer system: the gates and wires.

These are the fundamental building blocks, the implementations of the mathematical logic, which are common to all computer systems. 25. How does the term abstraction apply to computer organization and architecture? Through the principle of abstraction, we can imagine the machine to be built from a hierarchy of levels, in which each level has a specific function and exists as a distinct hypothetical machine. 27. Name the characteristics present in von Neumann architecture. Consists of three hardware systems: A central processing unit (CPU) with a control unit, an arithmetic logic unit (ALL]), registers (small storage areas), and a program counter; A main memory system, which holds programs that control the computer's operation; And an 1/0 system. ; Capacity to carry out sequential instruction processing. ; Contains a single path, either physically or logically, between the main memory system and the control unit of the CAP], forcing alternation of instruction and execution cycles. This single path is often referred to as the von Neumann bottleneck. 28. How does the fetch-decode-execute cycle work?