From Walked, the free encyclopedia Computational chemistry Is a branch of chemistry that uses principles of computer science to assist In solving chemical problems. It uses the results of theoretical chemistry, incorporated into efficient computer programs, to calculate the structures and properties of molecules and solids.
Its necessity arises from the well-known fact that apart from relatively recent results concerning the hydrogen molecular ion (see references therein for more details), the quantum many-body problem cannot be loved analytically, much less in closed form. While its results normally complement the information obtained by chemical experiments, it can in some cases predict hitherto unobserved chemical phenomena. It is widely used in the design of new drugs and materials. Examples of such properties are structure (I. E. He expected positions of the constituent atoms), absolute and relative (Interaction) energies, electronic charge distributions, dipoles higher multiple moments, vibration frequencies, reactively or other spectroscopic quantities, and cross sections for colons with other particles. The methods employed cover both static and dynamic situations. In all cases the computer time and other resources (such as memory and disk space) increase rapidly with the size of the system being studied. That system can be a single molecule, a group of molecules, or a solid.
Computational chemistry methods range from highly accurate to very approximate; highly accurate methods are typically feasible only for small systems. ABA monition methods are based entirely on theory from first principles. Other (typically less accurate) methods are called empirical or semi- empirical because they employ experimental results, often from acceptable models of atoms or related molecules, to approximate some elements of the underlying theory. Both ABA Moonlit and semi-empirical approaches Involve approximations.
These range from simplified forms of the first-principles equations that are easier or faster to solve, to approximations limiting the size of the system (for example, periodic boundary conditions), to fundamental approximations to the underlying equations that are required to achieve any solution to them at all. For example, most ABA monition calculations make the Born-Oppenheim approximation, which greatly amplifies the underlying ScarГ¶dingier equation by assuming that the nuclei remain in place during the calculation.
In principle, ABA monition methods eventually converge to the exact solution of the underlying equations as the number of approximations is reduced. In practice, however, it is impossible to eliminate all approximations, and residual error Inevitably remains. The goal of computational chemistry is to minimize this residual error while keeping the calculations tractable. In some cases, the details of electronic structure are less important than the long-time phase space behavior of lessees. This Is the case In conformational studies of proteins and protein-aligned binding thermodynamics.
The books that were influential in the early voltmeter of computational quantum chemistry include Lines Palling and E. Bright Willow's 1935 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics - with Applications to Chemistry, Erring, Walter and Kimball 1944 Quantum Chemistry, Whittler's 1945 Elementary Wave Mechanics - with Applications to Quantum Chemistry, and later Scullion's 1952 textbook Valence, each of which served as primary references for chemists in the decades to follow.
With the development of efficient computer technology in the sass, the solutions of elaborate wave equations for complex atomic systems began to be a realizable objective. In the early sass, the first semi-empirical atomic orbital calculations were carried out. Theoretical chemists became extensive users of the early digital computers. A very detailed account of such use in the United Kingdom is given by Smith and Satellite.  The first ABA monition Heartier-Bock calculations on diatomic molecules were carried out in 1956 at MIT, using a basis set of Slater orbital.