The phenomenon of organizing around some aspect of shared culture to integrate an identity group, differentiate it from other groups, and compete in a multi-ethnic context for resources
Audrey Smedley wrote "Race in North America: Origin and Evolution of a worldview"
the "reality of race" resides in " a set of beliefs and attitudes about human differences , not the differences themselves."
Francis Collins, Head of Human Genome Project
it is essential to point out that "race and ethnicity" are terms without generally agreed upon definitions. Both terms carry complex connotations that reflect culture, history, socioeconomic and political status, as well as a variably important connections to ancestral geographic origins
Sergio Pena and Telma de Souza Birchal, Brazilian anthropologists
insist that race is not a scientific idea; rater, "the notion of race has been imported from the common sense to science since its appearance."
There is more physical and genetic variation within a race group than between them. 85.4 percent of genetic diversity was found inside the categories and only 6.3 percent between categories
"moral, intellectual and spiritual attributes are as persistent as physical characters and are transmitted substantially unchanged from generation to generation."
Dante Puzzo, historian of Western ideas
race is a modern conception for prior to the 16th century there was virtually nothing in the life and thought of the West that can be described as racist
the word "race" did not appear in English until 1508
divided human species into four subtypes in the first classification based on color, white, black, red and yellow. in the tenth edition the typed evolved to homo europaeus, homo afer, homo americanus and homo asiaticus
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
proposed four races in "on the Natural Variety of Mankind". European, African, American, Asian.
the measurement of human bodies to determine individual and group physical characteristics
a concept in anthropometry that measures the shape of the face from the forehead to the bridge of the nose, on the assumption that sharper angles indicate "more primitive" kinds of humans
a term for the undesirable effects of the mixing of different gentetic types or populations, especially race groups. Often refers to the very notion of mixing the races
a measurement of the skull/brain volume and shape, based on a ratio of the width of the head from ear to ear relative to the depth of the head from front to back
the scientific practice of "improving" a population or species by selective breeding or genetic engineering, to breed out "bad" traits and breed in "good" ones
the marriage principle in which an individual marries comeone who is in the same cultural category as himself or herself
the process by which ethnic groups come into being and/or attain their cultural characteristics
the coexistence of multiple social/cultural groups in the same society or state
the social process by which individuals and groups are absorbed into another, usually dominant, cultural group
a type of assimilation which refers specifially to the loss of distinctive cultural traits, such as language or religion
a form of assimilation in which the physical traits of a group are lost thorugh intermarriage
a form of assimilation in which groups are integrated into the society whether or not they share the same culture