is the study of body structures and their relationships
is the science of how the body parts function
Topics of Anatomy
Major subdivisions of anatomy include:
and developmental anatomy
Topics of Physiology
Typically, physiology concerns the functioning of specific organs or organ systems. examples include:
renal physiology, and muscle physiology.
Complementarity of Structure and Function
Anatomy and physiology are inseparable:
what a body can do depends on the unique architecture of its parts. Function depend on structure.
Level of structural organization of the body from simplest to most complex
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organismal.
11 organ systems of the body are
Necessary life functions
All living organisms carry out certain vital functional activities necessary for life, including maintenance of boundaries, movement, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, and growth.
and appropriate temperature
and atmospheric pressure.
Homeostasis is maintained by negative feedback. Homeostasis is a dynamic equilibrium of the internal environment. all body systems contribute to homeostasis, but the nervous and endocrine systems are most important.
Control mechanisms of the body contain at least 3 elements that work together.
Negative feedback mechanisms
reduce the effect of the original stimulus, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis. Body temp, heart rate, breathing rate and depth, and blood levels of glucose and certain ions are regulated by negative feedback mechanisms.
Positive feedback mechanisms
intensify the initial stimulus, leading to an enhancement of the response. They rarely contribute to homeostasis, but blood clotting and labor contractions are regulate by such mechanisms.
With age, the efficiency of negative feedback mechanisms declines. These changes underlie certain disease conditions.
allow body parts to be located precisely.
membrane-lined internal cavities
the body contains 2 major closed cavities. the dorsal cavity, subdivided into the cranial and spinal cavities, contains the brain and spinal cord. The ventral cavity is subdivided into the thoracic cavity, which houses the heart and lungs, and the abdominopelvic cavity, which contains the liver, digestive organs, and reproductive structures.